Настольная книга террориста

1.1 Содержание

2.0   ПОКУПКА ВЗРЫВЧАТКИ И РАКЕТНОГО ТОПЛИВА

Почти в любом городе есть  оружейный магазин и аптека. Это  два основных
места, посещаемых террористами для приобретения материалов для  создания
взрывчатки.  Все,  что  требуется,  это  немного  знаний об используемых
невзрывчатых материалах. Порох, к примеру, используется в  огнестрельном
оружии. Он бывает различных "видов", отличающихся размерами. Вид  пороха
определяется  калибром  используемого  оружия;  высококачественный   вид
пороха должен  сгорать слишком  быстро в  оружии неподходящего  калибра.
Основное правило: чем мельче частицы пороха, тем быстрее он сгорает.

2.01   ПОРОХ

Порох  обычно  бывает  трех  видов.  Как  говорилось  выше, самый мелкий
сгорает наиболее быстро.  Скорость сгорания крайне  важна в бомбах.  Так
как  взрыв  происходит  за  счет  быстрого  увеличения  объема  газа   в
замкнутом    пространстве,    для    осуществления    взрыва   требуется
быстросгорающий  порошок.  Ниже  приведены  три  основных  вида  пороха,
вместе с калибром оружия, в  котором он обычно применяется. Обычно,  для
наиболее быстрого сгорания, используют  FFF. Однако используют и  другие
виды из приведенного ниже списка:

ВИД           КАЛИБР                   ПРИМЕР ОРУЖИЯ
~~~           ~~~~~~                   ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
F           .50 или выше         пушки; некоторые винтовки
FF          .36 - .50            большие пистолеты; маленькие винтовки
FFF         .36 или меньше       пистолеты; крупнокалиберные пистолеты

Вид FFF сгорает наиболее быстро из-за меньшего размера частиц, за счет
чего увеличивается площадь поверхности сгорания. Применение крупных
видов будет обсуждено позднее. Цена на порох, за фунт, около $8.50 -
$9.00. Цена не зависит от вида, так что для экономии времени и работы
наиболее часто покупают наиболее высококачественный вид пороха.

/*Для изготовления  бомб  чаще  всего  используют бездымный порох (более
высокая  скорость  сгорания  и  больший  психологический эффект) который
можно приобрести в охотничьих магазинах при наличии охотничьего  билета.
Распространенный   на   территории   СНГ   артиллерийский   порох    для
изготовления  бомб  не  применяется   из-за  довольно  низкой   скорости
сгорания,  даже  в  измельченном  состоянии,  так  как  в  него   вводят
специальные замедлители. Прим.переводчика*/

Наиболее  серьезной  проблемой  с  порохом  является  его  способность к
возгоранию от  статического электричества  и его  тенденция к поглощению
влаги  из  воздуха.  Для  его  безопасного  измельчения  создатель бомбы
должен  использовать  пластиковую  ложку  и  деревянную  салатницу. Беря
маленькими  порциями,  он  или  она  должны  давить  порошок  ложкой   и
измельчать  его  серией  ударов  или  круговых  движений,  но не слишком
сильными нажатиями. Он готов к использованию, когда превратится в  муку.
Однако,  требуемое  качаество  сильно   зависит  от  типа   создаваемого
устройства;  очевидно,  невозможно  измельчить  достаточное   количество
порошка для заполнения трубки радиусом 4 дюйма и длиной 1 фут.

2.02    ПИРОДЕКС


Pyrodex is a synthetic powder that is used like black
powder.  It comes in the same grades, but it is more expensive
per pound.  However, a one pound container of pyrodex contains
more material by volume than a pound of black powder.  It is
much easier to crush to a very fine powder than black powder,
and it is considerably safer and more reliable.  This is
because it will not be set off by static electricity, as black
can be, and it is less inclined to absorb moisture.  It costs
about $10.00 per pound.  It can be crushed in the same manner
as black powder, or it can be dissolved in boiling water and
dried.

2.03        ROCKET ENGINE POWDER

     One of the most exciting hobbies nowadays is model
rocketry.  Estes is the largest producer of model rocket kits
and engines.  Rocket engines are composed of a single large
grain of propellant.  This grain is surrounded by a fairly
heavy cardboard tubing.  One gets the propellant by slitting
the tube lengthwise, and unwrapping it like a paper towel
roll.  When this is done, the grey fire clay at either end of
the propellant grain must be removed.  This is usually done
gently with a plastic or brass knife. The material is
exceptionally hard, and must be crushed to be used.  By
gripping the grain on the widest setting on a set of pliers,
and putting the grain and powder in a plastic bag, the powder
will not break apart and shatter all over.  This should be
done to all the large chunks of powder, and then it should be
crushed like black powder. Rocket engines come in various
sizes, ranging from 1/4 A - 2T to the incredibly powerful D
engines.  The larger the engine, the more expensive.  D
engines come in packages of three, and cost about $5.00 per
package.  Rocket engines are perhaps the single most useful
item sold in stores to a terrorist, since they can be used as
is, or can be cannibalized for their explosive powder.

2.04       RIFLE/SHOTGUN POWDER

     Rifle powder and shotgun powder are really the same from
a practicle standpoint. They are both nitrocellulose based
propellants. They will be referred to as gunpowder in all
future references.
Gunpowder is made by the action of concentrated nitric and
sulfuric acid upon cotton. This material is then dissolved by
solvents and then reformed in the desired grain size.
When dealing with gunpowder, the grain size is not nearly as
important as that of black powder. Both large and small
grained gunpowder burn fairly slowly compared to black powder
when unconfined, but when it is confined, gunpowder burns both
hotter and with more gaseous expansion, producing more
pressure. Therefore, the grinding process that is often
necessary for other propellants is not necessary for
gunpowder.  Gunpowder costs about $9.00 per pound. Any idiot
can buy it, since there are no restrictions on rifles or
shotguns in the U.S.

2.05       FLASH POWDER

      Flash powder is a mixture of powdered zirconium metal
and various oxidizers. It is extremely sensitive to heat or
sparks, and should be treated with more care than black
powder, with which it should NEVER be mixed. It is sold in
small containers which must be mixed and shaken before use. It
is very finely powdered, and is available in three speeds:
fast, medium, and slow. The fast flash powder is the best for
using in explosives or detonators.      It burns very rapidly,
regardless of confinement or packing, with a hot white
"flash", hence its name.  It is fairly expensive, costing
about $11.00. It is sold in magic shops and theater supply
stores.

2.06       AMMONIUM NITRATE

     Ammonium nitrate is a high explosive material that is
often used as a commercial "safety explosive"  It is very
stable, and is difficult to ignite with a match. It will only
light if the glowing, red-hot part of a match is touching it.
It is also difficult to detonate; (the phenomenon of
detonation will be explained later) it requires a large
shockwave to cause it to go high explosive. Commercially, it
is sometimes mixed with a small amount of nitroglycerine to
increase its sensitivity. Ammonium nitrate is used in the
"Cold-Paks" or "Instant Cold", available in most drug stores.
The "Cold Paks" consist of a bag of water, surrounded by a
second plastic bag containing the ammonium nitrate. To get the
ammonium nitrate, simply cut off the top of the outside bag,
remove the plastic bag of water, and save the ammonium nitrate
in a well sealed, airtight container, since it is rather
hydroscopic, i.e. it tends to absorb water from the air. It is
also the main ingredient in many fertilizers.

2.1     ACQUIRING CHEMICALS

     The first section deals with getting chemicals legally.
This section deals with "procuring" them. The best place to
steal chemicals is a college. Many state schools have all of
their chemicals out on the shelves in the labs, and more in
their chemical stockrooms.


Evening is the best time to enter lab buildings, as there are
the least number of people in the buildings, and most of the
labs will still be unlocked. One simply takes a bookbag, wears
a dress shirt and jeans, and tries to resemble a college
freshman.  If anyone asks what such a person is doing, the
thief can simply say that he is looking for the  polymer
chemistry lab, or some other chemistry-related department
other than the one they are in. One can usually find out where
the various labs and  departments in a building are by calling
the university. There are, of course other techniques for
getting into labs after hours, such as placing a piece of
cardboard in the latch of an unused door, such as a back exit.
Then, all one needs to do is come back at a later hour. Also,
before this is done, terrorists check for security systems. If
one just walks into a lab, even if there is someone there, and
walks out the back exit, and slip the cardboard in the latch
before the door closes, the person in the lab will never know
what happened. It is also a good idea to observe the building
that one plans to rob at the time that one plans to rob it
several days before the actual theft is done. This is
advisable since the would-be thief should know when and if the
campus security makes patrols through buildings. Of course, if
none of these methods are successful, there is always section
2.11, but as a rule, college campus security is pretty poor,
and nobody suspects another person in the building of doing
anything wrong, even if they are there at an odd hour.

2.11     TECHNIQUES FOR PICKING LOCKS

     If it becomes necessary to pick a lock to enter a lab,
the world's most effective lockpick is dynamite, followed by a
sledgehammer.  There are unfortunately, problems with noise
and excess structural damage with these methods.  The next
best thing, however, is a set of army issue lockpicks. These,
unfortunately, are difficult to acquire. If the door to a lab
is locked, but the deadbolt is not engaged, then there are
other possibilities. The rule here is: if one can see the
latch, one can open the door. There are several devices which
facilitate freeing the latch from its hole in the wall. Dental
tools, stiff wire ( 20 gauge ), specially bent aluminum from
cans, thin pocket-knives, and credit cards are the tools of
the trade. The way that all these tools and devices are uses
is similar: pull, push, or otherwise move the latch out of its
hole in the wall, and pull the door open. This is done by
sliding whatever tool that you are using behind the latch, and
pulling the latch out from the wall. To make an aluminum-can
lockpick, terrorists can use an aluminum can and carefully cut
off the can top and bottom. Cut off the cans' ragged ends.
Then, cut the open-ended cylinder so that it can be flattened
out into a single long rectangle. This should then be cut into
inch wide strips. Fold the strips in 1/4 inch increments (1).
One will have a long quadruple-thick 1/4 inch wide strip of
aluminum. This should be folded into an L-shape, a J-shape, or
a U-shape. This is done by folding. The pieces would look like
this:







(1)
     ____________________________________________________  V
1/4  |__________________________________________________|  |
1/4  |__________________________________________________|  |
1/4  |__________________________________________________|  |
1/4  |__________________________________________________|  |
                                                           ^
                                                        1 inch

     Fold along lines to make a single quadruple-thick piece
of aluminum. This should then be folded to produce an L,J,or U
shaped device that looks like this:

   __________________________________________
  / ________________________________________|
 | |
 | |          L-shaped
 | |
 | |
 |_|

   _____________________________
  / ___________________________|
 | |
 | |     J-shaped
 | |
 | |________
  \________|

   _____________________
  / ___________________|
 | |
 | |
 | |     U-shaped
 | |
 | |____________________
  \____________________|

     All of these devices should be used to hook the latch of
a door and pull the latch out of its hole.  The folds in the
lockpicks will be between the door and the wall, and so the
device will not unfold, if it is made properly.

2.2  LIST OF USEFUL HOUSEHOLD CHEMICALS AND THEIR AVAILABILITY

     Anyone can get many chemicals from hardware stores,
supermarkets, and drug stores to get the materials to make
explosives or other dangerous compounds.  A would-be terrorist
would merely need a station wagon and some money to acquire
many of the chemicals named here.








Chemical             Used In                    Available at
______________________________________________________________
alcohol, ethyl *   alcoholic beverages        liquor stores
solvents (95% min. for both)                  hardware stores
______________________________________________________________
ammonia +       CLEAR household ammonia   supermarkets/7eleven
______________________________________________________________
ammonium         instant-cold paks,               drug stores,
nitrate          fertilizers             medical supply stores
______________________________________________________________
nitrous oxide  pressurizing whip cream     party supply stores
______________________________________________________________
magnesium      firestarters             surplus/camping stores
______________________________________________________________
lecithin       vitamins                 pharmacies/drug stores
______________________________________________________________
mineral oil    cooking, laxative       supermarket/drug stores
______________________________________________________________
mercury @   mercury thermometers  supermarkets/hardware stores
______________________________________________________________
sulfuric acid  uncharged car batteries       automotive stores
______________________________________________________________
glycerine            ?                  pharmacies/drug stores
______________________________________________________________
sulfur          gardening             gardening/hardware store
______________________________________________________________
charcoal        charcoal grills  supermarkets/gardening stores
______________________________________________________________
sodium nitrate  fertilizer                     gardening store
______________________________________________________________
cellulose (cotton)   first aid      drug/medical supply stores
______________________________________________________________
strontium nitrate    road flares          surplus/auto stores,
______________________________________________________________
fuel oil           kerosene stoves     surplus/camping stores,
______________________________________________________________
bottled gas       propane stoves       surplus/camping stores,
______________________________________________________________
potassium       water purification         purification plants
permanganate
______________________________________________________________
hexamine or     hexamine stoves         surplus/camping stores
methenamine        (camping)
______________________________________________________________
nitric acid ^   cleaning printing               printing shops
                    plates                  photography stores
______________________________________________________________
iodine &           first aid                       drug stores
______________________________________________________________
sodium perchlorate     solidox pellets         hardware stores
                      for cutting torches
______________________________________________________________


notes: * ethyl alcohol is mixed with methyl alcohol when it is
used as a solvent. Methyl alcohol is very poisonous. Solvent
alcohol must be at least 95% ethyl alcohol if it is used to
make mercury fulminate. Methyl alcohol may prevent mercury
fulminate from forming.

+ Ammonia, when bought in stores comes in a variety of forms.
The pine and cloudy ammonias should not be bought; only the
clear ammonia should be used to make ammonium triiodide
crystals.

@ Mercury thermometers are becoming a rarity, unfortunately.
They may be hard to find in most stores. Mercury is also used
in mercury switches, which are available at electronics
stores. Mercury is a hazardous substance, and should be kept
in the thermometer or mercury switch until used. It gives off
mercury vapors which will cause brain damage if inhaled.  For
this reason, it is a good idea not to spill mercury, and to
always use it outdoors. Also, do not get it in an open cut;
rubber gloves will help prevent this.

^ Nitric acid is very difficult to find nowadays. It is
usually stolen by bomb makers, or made by the process
described in a later section. A desired concentration for
making explosives about 70%.

& The iodine sold in drug stores is usually not the pure
crystaline form that is desired for producing ammonium
triiodide crystals. To obtain the pure form, it must usually
be acquired by a doctor's prescription, but this can be
expensive. Once again, theft is the means that terrorists
result to.

2.3    PREPARATION OF CHEMICALS

2.31     NITRIC ACID

       There are several ways to make this most essential of
all acids for explosives. One method by which it could be made
will be presented. Once again, be reminded that these methods
SHOULD NOT BE CARRIED OUT!!

Materials:                       Equipment:
~~~~~~~~~                        ~~~~~~~~~
sodium nitrate or                adjustable heat source
potassium nitrate
                                 retort
distilled water
                                 ice bath
concentrated
sulphuric acid                    stirring rod
                                 collecting flask with stopper

1) Pour 32 milliliters of concentrated sulfuric acid into the
retort.



2) Carefully weigh out 58 grams of sodium nitrate, or 68 grams
of potassium nitrate. and add this to the acid slowly.  If it
all does not dissolve, carefully stir the solution with a
glass rod until it does.

3) Place the open end of the retort into the collecting flask,
and place the collecting flask in the ice bath.

4) Begin heating the retort, using low heat.  Continue heating
until liquid begins to come out of the end of the retort.  The
liquid that forms is nitric acid.  Heat until the precipitate
in the bottom of the retort is almost dry, or until no more
nitric acid is forming.  CAUTION: If the acid is headed too
strongly, the nitric acid will decompose as soon as it is
formed.  This can result in the production of highly flammable
and toxic gasses that may explode.  It is a good idea to set
the above apparatus up, and then get away from it.

     Potassium nitrate could also be obtained from store-
bought black powder, simply by dissolving black powder in
boiling water and filtering out the sulfur and charcoal. To
obtain 68 g of potassium nitrate, it would be necessary to
dissolve about 90 g of black powder in about one liter of
boiling water. Filter the dissolved solution through filter
paper in a funnel into a jar until the liquid that pours
through is clear. The charcoal and sulfur in black powder are
insoluble in water, and so when the solution of water is
allowed to evaporate, potassium nitrate will be left in the
jar.

2.32     SULFURIC ACID

     Sulfuric acid is far too difficult to make outside of a
laboratory or industrial plant.  However, it is readily
available in an uncharged car battery. A person wishing to
make sulfuric acid would simply remove the top of a car
battery and pour the acid into a glass container.  There would
probably be pieces of lead from the battery in the acid which
would have to be removed, either by boiling or filtration.
The concentration of the sulfuric acid can also be increased
by boiling it; very pure sulfuric acid pours slightly faster
than clean motor oil.

2.33     AMMONIUM NITRATE

     Ammonium nitrate is a very powerful but insensitive high-
order explosive. It could be made very easily by pouring
nitric acid into a large flask in an ice bath. Then, by simply
pouring household ammonia into the flask and running away,
ammonium nitrate would be formed. After the materials have
stopped reacting, one would simply have to leave the solution
in a warm place until all of the water and any unneutralized
ammonia or acid have evaporated. There would be a fine powder
formed, which would be ammonium nitrate. It must be kept in an
airtight container, because of its tendency to pick up water
from the air.  The crystals formed in the above process would
have to be heated VERY gently to drive off the remaining
water.







3.0     EXPLOSIVE RECIPES

     Once again, persons reading this material MUST NEVER
ATTEMPT TO PRODUCE ANY OF THE EXPLOSIVES DESCRIBED HEREIN.
IT IS ILLEGAL AND EXTREMELY DANGEROUS TO ATTEMPT TO DO SO.
LOSS OF LIFE AND/OR LIMB COULD EASILY OCCUR AS A RESULT OF
ATTEMPTING TO PRODUCE EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS.

     These recipes are theoretically correct, meaning that an
individual could conceivably produce the materials described.
The methods here are usually scaled-down industrial
procedures.

3.01     EXPLOSIVE THEORY

     An explosive is any material that, when ignited by heat
or shock, undergoes rapid decomposition or oxidation.  This
process releases energy that is stored in the material in the
form of heat and light, or by breaking down into gaseous
compounds that occupy a much larger volume that the original
piece of material.  Because this expansion is very rapid,
large volumes of air are displaced by the expanding gasses.
This expansion occurs at a speed greater than the speed of
sound, and so a sonic boom occurs.  This explains the
mechanics behind an explosion.  Explosives occur in several
forms: high-order explosives which detonate, low order
explosives, which burn, and primers, which may do both.

     High order explosives detonate.  A detonation occurs only
in a high order explosive.  Detonations are usually incurred
by a shockwave that passes through a block of the high
explosive material.  The shockwave breaks apart the molecular
bonds between the atoms of the substance, at a rate
approximately equal to the speed of sound traveling through
that material.  In a high explosive, the fuel and oxidizer are
chemically bonded, and the shockwave breaks apart these bonds,
and re-combines the two materials to produce mostly gasses.
T.N.T., ammonium nitrate, and R.D.X. are examples of high
order explosives.

     Low order explosives do not detonate; they burn, or
undergo oxidation. when heated, the fuel(s) and oxidizer(s)
combine to produce heat, light, and gaseous products.  Some
low order materials burn at about the same speed under
pressure as they do in the open, such as blackpowder. Others,
such as gunpowder, which is correctly called nitrocellulose,
burn much faster and hotter when they are in a confined space,
such as the barrel of a firearm; they usually burn much slower
than blackpowder when they are ignited in unpressurized
conditions. Black powder, nitrocellulose, and flash powder are
good examples of low order explosives.

     Primers are peculiarities to the explosive field.  Some
of them, such as mercury filminate, will function as a low or
high order explosive.  They are usually more sensitive to
friction, heat, or shock, than the high or low explosives.
Most primers perform like a high order explosive, except that
they are much more sensitive.  Still others merely burn, but
when they are confined, they burn at a great rate and with a
large expansion of gasses and a shockwave. Primers are usually
used in a small amount to initiate, or cause to decompose, a
high order explosive, as in an artillery shell.  But, they are
also frequently used to ignite a low order explosive;  the
gunpowder in a bullet is ignited by the detonation of its
primer.

3.1     IMPACT EXPLOSIVES

     Impact explosives are often used as primers.  Of the ones
discussed here, only mercury fulminate and nitroglycerine are
real explosives; Ammonium triiodide crystals decompose upon
impact, but they release little heat and no light.  Impact
explosives are always treated with the greatest care, and even
the stupidest anarchist never stores them near any high or low
explosives.

3.11    AMMONIUM TRIIODIDE CRYSTALS

     Ammonium triiodide crystals are foul-smelling purple
colored crystals that decompose under the slightest amount of
heat, friction, or shock, if they are made with the purest
ammonia (ammonium hydroxide) and iodine.  Such crystals are
said to detonate when a fly lands on them, or when an ant
walks across them.  Household ammonia, however, has enough
impurities, such as soaps and abrasive agents, so that the
crystals will detonate when thrown,crushed, or heated.  Upon
detonation, a loud report is heard, and a cloud of purple
iodine gas appears about the detonation site.  Whatever the
unfortunate surface that the crystal was detonated upon will
usually be ruined, as some of the iodine in the crystal is
thrown about in a solid form, and iodine is corrosive.  It
leaves nasty, ugly, permanent brownish-purple stains on
whatever it contacts. Iodine gas is also bad news, since it
can damage lungs, and it settles to the ground and stains
things there also.  Touching iodine leaves brown stains on the
skin that last for about a week, unless they are immediately
and vigorously washed off.  While such a compound would have
little use to a serious terrorist, a vandal could utilize them
in damaging property.  Or, a terrorist could throw several of
them into a crowd as a distraction, an action which would
possibly injure a few people, but frighten almost anyone,
since a small crystal that not be seen when thrown produces a
rather loud explosion.  Ammonium triiodide crystals could be
produced in the following manner:






Materials                Equipment
~~~~~~~~~                ~~~~~~~~~

iodine crystals          funnel and filter paper
                         paper towels
clear ammonia
(ammonium hydroxide,     two throw-away glass jars
for the suicidal)

1) Place about two teaspoons of iodine into one of the glass
jars.  The jars must both be throw away because they will
never be clean again.

2) Add enough ammonia to completely cover the iodine.

3) Place the funnel into the other jar, and put the filter
paper in the funnel.  The technique for putting filter paper
in a funnel is taught in every basic chemistry lab class: fold
the circular paper in half, so that a semi-circle is formed.
Then, fold it in half again to form a triangle with one curved
side. Pull one thickness of paper out to form a cone, and
place the cone into the funnel.

4) After allowing the iodine to soak in the ammonia for a
while, pour the solution into the paper in the funnel through
the filter paper.

5) While the solution is being filtered, put more ammonia into
the first jar to wash any remaining crystals into the funnel
as soon as it drains.

6) Collect all the purplish crystals without touching the
brown filter paper, and place them on the paper towels to dry
for about an hour.  Make sure that they are not too close to
any lights or other sources of heat, as they could well
detonate. While they are still wet, divide the wet material
into about eight chunks.

7) After they dry, gently place the crystals onto a one square
inch piece of duct tape.  Cover it with a similar piece, and
gently press the duct tape together around the crystal, making
sure not to press the crystal itself.  Finally, cut away most
of the excess duct tape with a pair of scissors, and store the
crystals in a cool dry safe place.  They have a shelf life of
about a week, and they should be stored in individual
containers that can be thrown away, since they have a tendency
to slowly decompose, a process which gives off iodine vapors,
which will stain whatever they settle on.  One possible way to
increase their shelf life is to store them in airtight
containers.  To use them, simply throw them against any
surface or place them where they will be stepped on or
crushed.







3.12      MERCURY FULMINATE

     Mercury fulminate is perhaps one of the oldest known
initiating compounds.  It can be detonated by either heat or
shock, which would make it of infinite value to a terrorist.
Even the action of dropping a crystal of the fulminate causes
it to explode.  A person making this material would probably
use the following procedure:

MATERIALS                EQUIPMENT
~~~~~~~~~                ~~~~~~~~~

mercury (5 g)            glass stirring rod
concentrated nitric      100 ml beaker (2)
acid (35 ml)
                         adjustable heat source
ethyl alcohol (30 ml)
                         blue litmus paper
distilled water
                         funnel and filter paper

1) In one beaker, mix 5 g of mercury with 35 ml of
concentrated nitric acid, using the glass rod.

2) Slowly heat the mixture until the mercury is dissolved,
which is when the solution turns green and boils.

3) Place 30 ml of ethyl alcohol into the second beaker, and
slowly and carefully add all of the contents of the first
beaker to it.  Red and/or brown fumes should appear. These
fumes are toxic and flammable.

4) After thirty to forty minutes, the fumes should turn white,
indicating that the reaction is near completion.  After ten
more minutes, add 30 ml of the distilled water to the
solution.

5) Carefully filter out the crystals of mercury fulminate from
the liquid solution.  Dispose of the solution in a safe place,
as it is corrosive and toxic.

6) Wash the crystals several times in distilled water to
remove as much excess acid as possible.  Test the crystals
with the litmus paper until they are neutral.  This will be
when the litmus paper stays blue when it touches the wet
crystals.

7) Allow the crystals to dry, and store them in a safe place,
far away from any explosive or flammable material.

       This procedure can also be done by volume, if the
available mercury cannot be weighed.  Simply use 10 volumes of
nitric acid and 10 volumes of ethanol to every one volume of
mercury.



3.13       NITROGLYCERINE

     Nitroglycerine is one of the most sensitive explosives,
if it is not the most sensitive.  Although it is possible to
make it safely, it is difficult. Many a young anarchist has
been killed or seriously injured while trying to make the
stuff.  When Nobel's factories make it, many people were
killed by the all-to-frequent factory explosions.  Usually, as
soon as it is made, it is converted into a safer substance,
such as dynamite.  An idiot who attempts to make
nitroglycerine would use the following procedure:

MATERIAL               EQUIPMENT
~~~~~~~~               ~~~~~~~~~
distilled water        eye-dropper
table salt             100 ml beaker
sodium bicarbonate     200-300 ml beakers (2)
concentrated nitric    ice bath container
acid (13 ml)           ( a plastic bucket serves well )
concentrated sulfuric  centigrade thermometer
acid (39 ml)           blue litmus paper
glycerine

1) Place 150 ml of distilled water into one of the 200-300 ml
beakers.

2) In the other 200-300 ml beaker, place 150 ml of distilled
water and about a spoonful of sodium bicarbonate, and stir
them until the sodium bicarbonate dissolves.  Do not put so
much sodium bicarbonate in the water so that some remains
undissolved.

3) Create an ice bath by half filling the ice bath container
with ice, and adding table salt.  This will cause the ice to
melt, lowering the overall temperature.

4) Place the 100 ml beaker into the ice bath, and pour the 13
ml of concentrated nitric acid into the 100 ml beaker.  Be
sure that the beaker will not spill into the ice bath, and
that the ice bath will not overflow into the beaker when more
materials are added to it.  Be sure to have a large enough ice
bath container to add more ice.  Bring the temperature of the
acid down to about 20 degrees centigrade or less.

5) When the nitric acid is as cold as stated above, slowly and
carefully add the 39 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid to the
nitric acid.  Mix the two acids together, and cool the mixed
acids to 10 degrees centigrade.  It is a good idea to start
another ice bath to do this.









6) With the eyedropper, slowly put the glycerine into the
mixed acids, one drop at a time.  Hold the thermometer along
the top of the mixture where the mixed acids and glycerine
meet.  DO NOT ALLOW THE TEMPERATURE TO GET ABOVE 30 DEGREES
CENTIGRADE; IF THE TEMPERATURE RISES ABOVE THIS TEMPERATURE,
RUN LIKE HELL!!!  The glycerine will start to nitrate
immediately, and the temperature will immediately begin to
rise.  Add glycerine until there is a thin layer of glycerine
on top of the mixed acids.  It is always safest to make any
explosive in small quantities.

7) Stir the mixed acids and glycerine for the first ten
minutes of nitration, adding ice and salt to the ice bath to
keep the temperature of the solution in the 100 ml beaker well
below 30 degrees centigrade.  Usually, the nitroglycerine will
form on the top of the mixed acid solution, and the
concentrated sulfuric acid will absorb the water produced by
the reaction.

8) When the reaction is over, and when the nitroglycerine is
well below 30 degrees centigrade, slowly and carefully pour
the solution of nitroglycerine and mixed acid into the
distilled water in the beaker in step 1.  The
nitroglycerine should settle to the bottom of the beaker, and
the water-acid solution on top can be poured off and disposed
of. Drain as much of the acid-water solution as possible
without disturbing the nitroglycerine.

9) Carefully remove the nitroglycerine with a clean eye-
dropper, and place it into the beaker in step 2.  The sodium
bicarbonate solution will eliminate much of the acid, which
will make the nitroglycerine more stable, and less likely to
explode for no reason, which it can do.  Test the
nitroglycerine with the litmus paper until the litmus stays
blue.  Repeat this step if necessary, and use new sodium
bicarbonate solutions as in step 2.

10) When the nitroglycerine is as acid-free as possible, store
it in a clean container in a safe place.  The best place to
store nitroglycerine is far away from anything living, or from
anything of any value.  Nitroglycerine can explode for no
apparent reason, even if it is stored in a secure cool place.

3.14     PICRATES

     Although the procedure for the production of picric acid,
or trinitrophenol has not yet been given, its salts are
described first, since they are extremely sensitive, and
detonate on impact.  By mixing picric acid with metal
hydroxides, such as sodium or potassium hydroxide, and
evaporating the water, metal picrates can be formed.  Simply
obtain picric acid, or produce it, and mix it with a solution
of (preferably) potassium hydroxide, of a mid range molarity.
(about 6-9 M)  This material, potassium picrate, is impact-
sensitive, and can be used as an initiator for any type of
high explosive.



3.2      LOW-ORDER EXPLOSIVES

     There are many low-order explosives that can be purchased
in gun stores and used in explosive devices. However, it is
possible that a wise wise store owner would not sell these
substances to a suspicious-looking individual. Such an
individual would then be forced to resort to making his own
low-order explosives.

3.21     BLACK POWDER

     First made by the Chinese for use in fireworks, black
powder was first used in weapons and explosives in the 12th
century.  It is very simple to make, but it is not very
powerful or safe.  Only about 50% of black powder is converted
to hot gasses when it is burned; the other half is mostly very
fine burned particles.  Black powder has one major problem: it
can be ignited by static electricity.  This is very bad, and
it means that the material must be made with wooden or clay
tools.  Anyway, a misguided individual could manufacture black
powder at home with the following procedure:

MATERIALS               EQUIPMENT
~~~~~~~~~               ~~~~~~~~~
potassium               clay grinding bowl
nitrate (75 g)          and clay grinder
   or                         or
sodium                  wooden salad bowl
nitrate (75 g)          and wooden spoon
sulfur (10 g)           plastic bags (3)
charcoal (15 g)         300-500 ml beaker (1)
distilled water         coffee pot or heat source

1) Place a small amount of the potassium or sodium nitrate in
the grinding bowl and grind it to a very fine powder.  Do this
to all of the potassium or sodium nitrate, and store the
ground powder in one of the plastic bags.

2) Do the same thing to the sulfur and charcoal, storing each
chemical in a separate plastic bag.

3) Place all of the finely ground potassium or sodium nitrate
in the beaker, and add just enough boiling water to the
chemical to get it all wet.

4) Add the contents of the other plastic bags to the wet
potassium or sodium nitrate, and mix them well for several
minutes.  Do this until there is no more visible sulfur or
charcoal, or until the mixture is universally black.

5) On a warm sunny day, put the beaker outside in the direct
sunlight.  Sunlight is really the best way to dry black
powder, since it is never too hot, but it is hot enough to
evaporate the water.




6) Scrape the black powder out of the beaker, and store it in
a safe container.  Plastic is really the safest container,
followed by paper.  Never store black powder in a plastic bag,
since plastic bags are prone to generate static electricity.

3.22     NITROCELLULOSE

     Nitrocellulose is usually called "gunpowder" or
"guncotton".  It is more stable than black powder, and it
produces a much greater volume of hot gas. It also burns much
faster than black powder when it is in a confined space.
Finally, nitrocellulose is fairly easy to make, as outlined by
the following procedure:

MATERIALS                    EQUIPMENT
~~~~~~~~~                    ~~~~~~~~~
cotton  (cellulose)          two (2) 200-300 ml beakers
concentrated                 funnel and filter paper
nitric acid                  blue litmus paper
concentrated
sulfuric acid
distilled water

1) Pour 10 cc of concentrated sulfuric acid into the beaker.
Add to this 10 cc of concentrated nitric acid.

2) Immediately add 0.5 gm of cotton, and allow it to soak for
exactly 3 minutes.

3) Remove the nitrocotton, and transfer it to a beaker of
distilled water to wash it in.

4) Allow the material to dry, and then re-wash it.

5) After the cotton is neutral when tested with litmus paper,
it is ready to be dried and stored.

3.23     FUEL-OXODIZER MIXTURES

     There are nearly an infinite number of fuel-oxodizer
mixtures that can be produced by a misguided individual in his
own home.  Some are very effective and dangerous, while others
are safer and less effective.  A list of working fuel-oxodizer
mixtures will be presented, but the exact measurements of each
compound are debatable for maximum effectiveness.  A rough
estimate will be given of the percentages of each fuel and
oxodizer:

oxodizer, % by weight  fuel, % by weight  speed #      notes
==============================================================
potassium chlorate 67%   sulfur 33%       5   friction/impact
                                          sensitive; unstable
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
potassium chlorate 50%   sugar 35%        5   fairly slow
                         charcoal 15%        burning; unstable
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


potassium chlorate 50%   sulfur 25%        8      extremely
                         magnesium or             unstable!
                         aluminum dust 25%
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
potassium chlorate 67%   magnesium or       8     unstable
                         aluminum dust 33%
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
sodium nitrate 65%    magnesium dust 30%    ?    unpredictable
                      sulfur 5%                  burn rate
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
potassium permanganate 60%  glycerine 40%   4    delay before
                                             ignition depends
                                              upon grain size
WARNING: IGNITES SPONTANEOUSLY WITH GLYCERINE!!!
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
potassium permanganate 67%  sulfur 33%       5       unstable
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
potassium permangenate 60%  sulfur 20%       5       unstable
                            magnesium or
                            aluminum dust 20%
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
potassium permanganate 50%  sugar 50%        3          ?
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
potassium nitrate 75%       charcoal 15%     7      this is
                            sulfur 10%           black powder!
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
potassium nitrate 60%       powdered iron    1     burns very
                            or magnesium 40%           hot
==============================================================
potassium chlorate 75%        phosphorus     8  used to make
                              sesquisulfide 25% strike-
                                            anywhere matches
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
ammonium perchlorate 70%  aluminum dust 30%   6     solid fuel
                         and small amount of       for space
                         iron oxide                shuttle
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
potassium perchlorate 67%  magnesium or 10    flash powder
(sodium perchlorate)       aluminum dust 33%
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
potassium perchlorate 60%    sulfur 20% or 8     alternate
(sodium perchlorate)         magnesium           flash  powder
                             aluminum dust 20%
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
barium nitrate 30%        aluminum dust 30%  9   alternate
potassium perchlorate 30%                        flash powder
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
barium peroxide 90%  magnesium dust 5%     10    alternate
                     aluminum dust 5%            flash powder
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
potassium perchlorate 50%     sulfur 25%   8         slightly
                              magnesium or           unstable
                             aluminum dust 25%
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
potassium chlorate 67%   red phosphorus 27%  7  very unstable
calcium carbonate 3%     sulfur 3%           impact sensitive
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
potassium permanganate 50%  powdered sugar 25%  7 unstable;
                           aluminum or           ignites if
                          magnesium dust 25%    it gets wet!
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
potassium chlorate 75%      charcoal dust 15%   6   unstable
                            sulfur 10%
==============================================================
NOTE: Mixtures that use substitutions of sodium perchlorate
for potassium perchlorate become moisture-absorbent and less
stable.

The higher the speed number, the faster the fuel-oxodizer
mixture burns AFTER ignition.  Also, as a rule, the finer the
powder, the faster the rate of burning.

As one can easily see, there is a wide variety of fuel-
oxodizer mixtures that can be made at home.  By altering the
amounts of fuel and oxodizer(s), different burn rates can be
achieved, but this also can change the sensitivity of the
mixture.

3.24    PERCHLORATES

     As a rule, any oxidizable material that is treated with
perchloric acid will become a low order explosive.  Metals,
however, such as potassium or sodium, become excellent bases
for flash-type powders.  Some materials that can be
perchlorated are cotton, paper, and sawdust.  To produce
potassium or sodium perchlorate, simply acquire the hydroxide
of that metal, e.g. sodium or potassium hydroxide.  It is a
good idea to test the material to be perchlorated with a very
small amount of acid, since some of the materials tend to
react explosively when contacted by the acid.  Solutions of
sodium or potassium hydroxide are ideal.

3.3     HIGH-ORDER EXPLOSIVES

     High order explosives can be made in the home without too
much difficulty.  The main problem is acquiring the nitric
acid to produce the high explosive.  Most high explosives
detonate because their molecular structure is made up of some
fuel and usually three or more NO2 ( nitrogen dioxide )
molecules.  T.N.T., or Tri-Nitro-Toluene is an excellent
example of such a material.  When a shock wave passes through
an molecule of T.N.T., the nitrogen dioxide bond is broken,
and the oxygen combines with the fuel, all in a matter of
microseconds.  This accounts for the great power of nitrogen-
based explosives.  Remembering that these procedures are NEVER
TO BE CARRIED OUT, several methods of manufacturing high-order
explosives in the home are listed.








3.31     R.D.X.

     R.D.X., also called cyclonite, or composition C-1 (when
mixed with plasticisers) is one of the most valuable of all
military explosives.  This is because it has more than 150% of
the power of T.N.T., and is much easier to detonate.  It
should not be used alone, since it can be set off by a not-too
severe shock.  It is less sensitive than mercury fulminate, or
nitroglycerine, but it is still too sensitive to be used
alone.  R.D.X. can be made by the surprisingly simple method
outlined hereafter.  It is much easier to make in the home
than all other high explosives, with the possible exception of
ammonium nitrate.

MATERIALS                    EQUIPMENT
~~~~~~~~~                    ~~~~~~~~~
hexamine                     500 ml beaker
   or                        glass stirring rod
methenamine                  funnel and filter paper
fuel tablets (50 g)          ice bath container
concentrated                  (plastic bucket)
nitric acid (550 ml)         centigrade thermometer
distilled water              blue litmus paper
table salt
ice
ammonium nitrate

1) Place the beaker in the ice bath, (see section 3.13, steps
3-4) and carefully pour 550 ml of concentrated nitric acid
into the beaker.

2) When the acid has cooled to below 20 degrees centigrade,
add small amounts of the crushed fuel tablets to the beaker.
The temperature will rise, and it must be kept below 30
degrees centigrade, or dire consequences could result. Stir
the mixture.

3) Drop the temperature below zero degrees centigrade, either
by adding more ice and salt to the old ice bath, or by
creating a new ice bath.  Or, ammonium nitrate could be added
to the old ice bath, since it becomes cold when it is put in
water. Continue stirring the mixture, keeping the temperature
below zero degrees centigrade for at least twenty minutes.

4) Pour the mixture into a litre of crushed ice.  Shake and
stir the mixture, and allow it to melt. Once it has melted,
filter out the crystals, and dispose of the corrosive liquid.

5) Place the crystals into one half litre of boiling distilled
water.  Filter the crystals, and test them with the blue
litmus paper.  Repeat steps 4 and 5 until the litmus paper
remains blue.  This will make the crystals more stable and
safe.

6) Store the crystals wet until ready for use. Allow them to
dry completely  before using them. R.D.X. is not stable enough
to use alone as an explosive.


7) Composition C-1 can be made by mixing 88.3% R.D.X. (by
weight) with 11.1% mineral oil, and 0.6% lecithin. Kneed these
material together in a plastic bag. This is a good way to
desensitize the explosive.

8) H.M.X. is a mixture of T.N.T. and R.D.X.; the ratio is
50/50, by weight. It is not as sensitive, and is almost as
powerful as straight R.D.X.

9) By adding ammonium nitrate to the crystals of R.D.X. after
step 5, it should be possible to desensitize the R.D.X. and
increase its power, since ammonium nitrate is very insensitive
and powerful. Soduim or potassium nitrate could also be added;
a small quantity is sufficient to stabilize the R.D.X.

10) R.D.X. detonates at a rate of 8550 meters/second when it
is compressed to a density of 1.55 g/cubic cm.

3.32      AMMONIUM NITRATE

     Ammonium nitrate could be made by a terrorist according
to the hap-hazard method in section 2.33, or it could be
stolen from a construction site, since it is usually used in
blasting, because it is very stable and insensitive to shock
and heat.  A terrorist could also buy several Instant Cold-
Paks from a drug store or medical supply store.  The major
disadvantage with ammonium nitrate, from a terrorist's point
of view, would be detonating it.  A rather powerful priming
charge must be used, and usually with a booster charge.  The
diagram below will explain.

          _________________________________________
          |       |                               |
  ________|       |                               |
  |       | T.N.T.|       ammonium nitrate        |
  |primer |booster|                               |
  |_______|       |                               |
          |       |                               |
          |_______|_______________________________|

     The primer explodes, detonating the T.N.T., which
detonates, sending  a tremendous shockwave through the
ammonium nitrate, detonating it.

3.33     ANFOS

     ANFO is an acronym for Ammonium Nitrate - Fuel Oil
Solution.  An ANFO solves the only other major problem with
ammonium nitrate: its tendency to pick up water vapor from the
air.  This results in the explosive failing to detonate when
such an attempt is made.  This is rectified by mixing 94% (by
weight) ammonium nitrate with 6% fuel oil, or kerosene.  The
kerosene keeps the ammonium nitrate from absorbing moisture
from the air.  An ANFO also requires a large shockwave to set
it off.




3.34       T.N.T.

     T.N.T., or Tri-Nitro-Toluene, is perhaps the second
oldest known high explosive. Dynamite, of course, was the
first. It is certainly the best known high explosive, since it
has been popularized by early morning cartoons. It is the
standard for comparing other explosives to, since it is the
most well known. In industry, a T.N.T. is made by a three step
nitration process that is designed to conserve the nitric and
sulfuric acids which are used to make the product. A
terrorist, however, would probably optain it for the less
economical one step method. The one step process is performed
by treating toluene with very strong (fuming) sulfuric acid.
Then, the sulfated toluene is treated with very strong
(fuming) nitric acid in an ice bath. Cold water is added the
solution, and it is filtered.

3.35     POTASSIUM CHLORATE

     Potassium chlorate itself cannot be made in the home, but
it can be obtained from labs.  If potassium chlorate is mixed
with a small amount of vaseline, or other petroleum jelly, and
a shockwave is passed through it, the material will detonate
with slightly more power than black powder.  It must, however,
be confined to detonate it in this manner.  The procedure for
making such an explosive is outlined below:

MATERIALS                    EQUIPMENT
~~~~~~~~~                    ~~~~~~~~~
potassium chlorate           zip-lock plastic bag
(9 parts, by volume)         clay grinding bowl
petroleum jelly                     or
(vaseline)                   wooden bowl and wooden spoon
(1 part, by volume)

1)  Grind the potassium chlorate in the grinding bowl
carefully and slowly, until the potassium chlorate is a very
fine powder.  The finer that it is powdered, the faster
(better)  it will detonate.

2)  Place the powder into the plastic bag.  Put the petroleum
jelly into the plastic bag, getting as little on the sides of
the bag as possible, i.e. put the vaseline on the potassium
chlorate powder.

3)  Close the bag, and kneed the materials together until none
of the potassium chlorate is dry powder that does not stick to
the main glob.  If necessary, add a bit more petroleum jelly
to the bag.

4)  The material must me used within 24 hours, or the mixture
will react to greatly reduce the effectiveness of the
explosive.  This reaction, however, is harmless, and releases
no heat or dangerous products.




3.36     DYNAMITE

     The name dynamite comes from the Greek word "dynamis",
meaning power. Dynamite was invented by Nobel shortly after he
made nitroglycerine. It was made because nitroglycerine was so
dangerously sensitive to shock. A misguided individual with
some sanity would, after making nitroglycerine (an insane act)
would immediately convert it to dynamite. This can be done by
adding various materials to the nitroglycerine, such as
sawdust. The sawdust holds a large weight of nitroglycerine
per volume. Other materials, such as ammonium nitrate could be
added, and they would tend to desensitize the explosive, and
increase the power.  But even these nitroglycerine compounds
are not really safe.

3.37     NITROSTARCH EXPLOSIVES

     Nitrostarch explosives are simple to make, and are fairly
powerful.  All that need be done is treat various starches
with a mixture of concentrated nitric and sulfuric acids.  10
ml of concentrated sulfuric acid is added to 10 ml of
concentrated nitric acid.  To this mixture is added 0.5 grams
of starch.  Cold water is added, and the apparently unchanged
nitrostarch is filtered out. Nitrostarch explosives are of
slightly lower power than T.N.T., but they are more readily
detonated.

3.38     PICRIC ACID

     Picric acid, also known as Tri-Nitro-Phenol, or T.N.P.,
is a military explosive that is most often used as a booster
charge to set off another less sensitive explosive, such as
T.N.T.  It another explosive that is fairly simple to make,
assuming that one can acquire the concentrated sulfuric and
nitric acids.  Its procedure for manufacture is given in many
college chemistry lab manuals, and is easy to follow.  The
main problem with picric acid is its tendency to form
dangerously sensitive and unstable picrate salts, such as
potassium picrate.  For this reason, it is usually made into a
safer form, such as ammonium picrate, also called explosive D.
A social deviant would probably use a formula similar to the
one presented here to make picric acid.

MATERIALS                         EQUIPMENT
~~~~~~~~~                         ~~~~~~~~~
phenol (9.5 g)                    500 ml flask
concentrated                      adjustable heat source
sulfuric acid (12.5 ml)           1000 ml beaker
concentrated nitric acid (38 ml)  or other container
distilled water                   suitable for boiling in
                                  filter paper and funnel
                                  glass stirring rod

1) Place 9.5 grams of phenol into the 500 ml flask, and
carefully add 12.5 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid and stir
the mixture.


2) Put 400 ml of tap water into the 1000 ml beaker or boiling
container and bring the water to a gentle boil.

3) After warming the 500 ml flask under hot tap water, place
it in the boiling water, and continue to stir the mixture of
phenol and acid for about thirty minutes.  After thirty
minutes, take the flask out, and allow it to cool for about
five minutes.

4) Pour out the boiling water used above, and after allowing
the container to cool, use it to create an ice bath, similar
to the one used in section 3.13, steps 3-4.  Place the 500 ml
flask with the mixed acid an phenol in the ice bath.  Add
38 ml of concentrated nitric acid in small amounts, stirring
the mixture constantly.  A vigorous but "harmless" reaction
should occur.  When the mixture stops reacting vigorously,
take the flask out of the ice bath.

5) Warm the ice bath container, if it is glass, and then begin
boiling more tap water.  Place the flask containing the
mixture in the boiling water, and heat it in the boiling water
for 1.5 to 2 hours.

6) Add 100 ml of cold distilled water to the solution, and
chill it in an ice bath until it is cold.

7) Filter out the yellowish-white picric acid crystals by
pouring the solution through the filter paper in the funnel.
Collect the liquid and dispose of it in a safe place, since it
is corrosive.

8) Wash out the 500 ml flask with distilled water, and put the
contents of the filter paper in the flask.  Add 300 ml of
water, and shake vigorously.

9) Re-filter the crystals, and allow them to dry.

10) Store the crystals in a safe place in a glass container,
since they will react with metal containers to produce
picrates that could explode spontaneously.

3.39     AMMONIUM PICRATE

     Ammonium picrate, also called Explosive D, is another
safety explosive. It requires a substantial shock to cause it
to detonate, slightly less than that required to detonate
ammonium nitrate.  It is much safer than picric acid, since it
has little tendency to form hazardous unstable salts when
placed in metal containers.  It is simple to make from picric
acid and clear household ammonia. All that need be done is put
the picric acid crystals into a glass container and dissolve
them in a great quantity of hot water.  Add clear household
ammonia in excess, and allow the excess ammonia to evaporate.
The powder remaining should be ammonium picrate.




3.40   NITROGEN TRICHLORIDE

     Nitrogen trichloride, also known as chloride of azode, is
an oily yellow liquid.  It explodes violently when it is
heated above 60 degrees celsius, or when it comes in contact
with an open flame or spark.  It is fairly simple to produce.

1)  In a beaker, dissolve about 5 teaspoons of ammonium
nitrate in water.  Do not put so much ammonium nitrate into
the solution that some of it remains undissolved in the bottom
of the beaker.

2)  Collect a quantity of chlorine gas in a second beaker by
mixing hydrochloric acid with potassium permanganate in a
large flask with a stopper and glass pipe.

3)  Place the beaker containing the chlorine gas upside down
on top of the beaker containing the ammonium nitrate solution,
and tape the beakers together.  Gently heat the bottom beaker.
When this is done, oily yellow droplets will begin to form on
the surface of the solution, and sink down to the bottom.  At
this time, remove the heat source immediately.

    Alternately, the chlorine can be bubbled through the
ammonium nitrate solution, rather than collecting the gas in a
beaker, but this requires timing and a stand to hold the
beaker and test tube.

    The chlorine gas can also be mixed with anhydrous ammonia
gas, by gently heating a flask filled with clear household
ammonia.  Place the glass tubes from the chlorine-generating
flask and the tube from the ammonia-generating flask in
another flask that contains water.

4)  Collect the yellow droplets with an eyedropper, and use
them immediately, since nitrogen trichloride decomposes in 24
hours.

3.41     LEAD AZIDE

     Lead Azide is a material that is often used as a booster
charge for other explosive, but it does well enough on its own
as a fairly sensitive explosive.  It does not detonate too
easily by percussion or impact, but it is easily detonated by
heat from an igniter wire, or a blasting cap.  It is simple to
produce, assuming that the necessary chemicals can be
procured.

     By dissolving sodium azide and lead acetate in water in
separate beakers, the two materials are put into an aqueous
state.  Mix the two beakers together, and apply a gentle heat.
Add an excess of the lead acetate solution, until no reaction
occurs, and the precipitate on the bottom of the beaker stops
forming.  Filter off the solution, and wash the precipitate in
hot water. The precipitate is lead azide, and it must be
stored wet for safety. If lead acetate cannot be found, simply
acquire acetic acid, and put lead metal in it. Black powder
bullets work well for this purpose.

3.5     OTHER "EXPLOSIVES"

     The remaining section covers the other types of materials
that can be used to destroy property by fire.  Although none
of the materials presented here are explosives, they still
produce explosive-style results.

3.51     THERMIT

     Thermit is a fuel-oxodizer mixture that is used to
generate tremendous amounts of heat. It was not presented in
section 3.23 because it does not react nearly as readily. It
is a mixture of iron oxide and aluminum, both finely powdered.
When it is ignited, the aluminum burns, and extracts the
oxygen from the iron oxide. This is really two very exothermic
reactions that produce a combined temperature of about 2200
degrees C. This is half the heat produced by an atomic weapon.
It is difficult to ignite, however, but when it is ignited, it
is one of the most effective firestarters around.

MATERIALS
~~~~~~~~~
powdered aluminum (10 g)
powdered iron oxide (10 g)

1) There is no special procedure or equipment required to make
thermit.  Simply mix the two powders together, and try to make
the mixture as homogenous as possible.  The ratio of iron
oxide to aluminum is 50% / 50% by weight, and be made in
greater or lesser amounts.

2) Ignition of thermite can be accomplished by adding a small
amount of potassium chlorate to the thermit, and pouring a few
drops of sulfuric acid on it.  This method and others will be
discussed later in section 4.33.  The other method of igniting
thermit is with a magnesium strip.  Finally, by using common
sparkler-type fireworks placed in the thermit, the mixture
can be ignited.

3.52     MOLOTOV COCKTAILS

     First used by Russians against German tanks, the Molotov
cocktail is now exclusively used by terrorists worldwide. They
are extremely simple to make, and can produce devastating
results. By taking any highly flammable material, such as
gasoline, diesel fuel, kerosene, ethyl or methyl alcohol,
lighter fluid, turpentine, or any mixture of the above, and
putting it into a large glass bottle, anyone can make an
effective firebomb. After putting the flammable liquid in the
bottle, simply put a piece of cloth that is soaked in the
liquid in the top of the bottle so that it fits tightly. Then,
wrap some of the cloth around the neck and tie it, but be sure
to leave a few inches of lose cloth to light.

Light the exposed cloth, and throw the bottle. If the burning
cloth does not go out, and if the bottle breaks on impact, the
contents of the bottle will spatter over a large area near the
site of impact, and burst into flame.
Flammable mixtures such as kerosene and motor oil should be
mixed with a more volatile and flammable liquid, such as
gasoline, to insure ignition. A mixture such as tar or grease
and gasoline will stick to the surface that it strikes, and
burn hotter, and be more difficult to extinguish. A mixture
such as this must be shaken well before it is lit and thrown

3.53     CHEMICAL FIRE BOTTLE

     The chemical fire bottle is really an advanced molotov
cocktail.  Rather than using the burning cloth to ignite the
flammable liquid, which has at best a fair chance of igniting
the liquid, the chemical fire bottle utilizes the very hot and
violent reaction between sulfuric acid and potassium chlorate.
When the container breaks, the sulfuric acid in the mixture of
gasoline sprays onto the paper soaked in potassium chlorate
and sugar.  The paper, when struck by the acid, instantly
bursts into a white flame, igniting the gasoline.  The chance
of failure to ignite the gasoline is less than 2%, and can be
reduced to 0%, if there is enough potassium chlorate and sugar
to spare.

MATERIALS                         EQUIPMENT
~~~~~~~~~                         ~~~~~~~~~
potassium chlorate               glass bottle
(2 teaspoons)                    (12 oz.)
sugar (2 teaspoons)              cap for bottle,
concentrated                     with plastic inside
sulfuric acid (4 oz.)            cooking pan with raised
gasoline (8 oz.)                 edges
                                 paper towels
                                 glass or plastic cup
                                 and spoon

1) Test the cap of the bottle with a few drops of sulfuric
acid to make sure that the acid will not eat away the bottle
cap during storage.  If the acid eats through it in 24 hours,
a new top must be found and tested, until a cap that the acid
does not eat through is found. A glass top is excellent.

2) Carefully pour 8 oz. of gasoline into the glass bottle.

3) Carefully pour 4 oz. of concentrated sulfuric acid into the
glass bottle.  Wipe up any spills of acid on the sides of the
bottle, and screw the cap on the bottle.  Wash the bottle's
outside with plenty of water.  Set it aside to dry.

4) Put about two teaspoons of potassium chlorate and about two
teaspoons of    sugar into the glass or plastic cup.  Add
about 1/2 cup of boiling water,    or enough to dissolve all
of the potassium chlorate and sugar.

5) Place a sheet of paper towel in the cooking pan with raised
edges.  Fold the paper towel in half, and pour the solution of
dissolved potassium chlorate and sugar on it until it is
thoroughly wet.  Allow the towel to dry.


6) When it is dry, put some glue on the outside of the glass
bottle containing the gasoline and sulfuric acid mixture.
Wrap the paper towel around the bottle, making sure that it
sticks to it in all places.  Store the bottle in a place where
it will not be broken or tipped over.

7) When finished, the solution in the bottle should appear as
two distinct liquids, a dark brownish-red solution on the
bottom, and a clear solution on top.  The two solutions will
not mix.  To use the chemical fire bottle, simply throw it at
any hard surface.

8) NEVER OPEN THE BOTTLE, SINCE SOME SULFURIC ACID MIGHT BE ON
THE CAP, WHICH COULD TRICKLE DOWN THE SIDE OF THE BOTTLE AND
IGNITE THE POTASSIUM CHLORATE,  CAUSING A FIRE AND/OR
EXPLOSION.

9) To test the device, tear a small piece of the paper towel
off the bottle, and put a few drops of sulfuric acid on it.
The paper towel should immediately burst into a white flame.

3.54     BOTTLED GAS EXPLOSIVES

     Bottled gas, such as butane for refilling lighters,
propane for propane stoves or for bunsen burners, can be used
to produce a powerful explosion. To make such a device, all
that a simple-minded anarchist would have to do would be to
take his container of bottled gas and place it above a can of
Sterno or other gelatinized fuel, and light the fuel and run.
Depending on the fuel used, and on the thickness of the fuel
container, the liquid gas will boil and expand to the point of
bursting the container in about five minutes. In theory, the
gas would immediately be ignited by the burning gelatinized
fuel, producing a large fireball and explosion. Unfortunately,
the bursting of the bottled gas container often puts out the
fuel, thus preventing the expanding gas from igniting.  By
using a metal bucket half filled with gasoline, however, the
chances of ignition are better, since the gasoline is less
likely to be extinguished.  Placing the canister of bottled
gas on a bed of burning charcoal soaked in gasoline would
probably be the most effective way of securing ignition of the
expanding gas, since although the bursting of the gas
container may blow out the flame of the gasoline, the burning
charcoal should immediately re-ignite it.  Nitrous oxide,
hydrogen, propane, acetylene, or any other flammable gas will
do nicely.

4.0     USING EXPLOSIVES

     Once a terrorist has made his explosives, the next
logical step is to apply them. Explosives have a wide range of
uses, from harassment, to vandalism, to murder. NONE OF THE
IDEAS PRESENTED HERE ARE EVER TO BE CARRIED OUT, EITHER IN
PART OR IN FULL!  DOING SO CAN LEAD TO PROSECUTION, FINES, AND
IMPRISONMENT! The first step that a person that would use
explosive would take would be to determine how big an
explosive device would be needed to do whatever had to be
done.
Then, he would have to decide what to make his bomb with. He
would also have to decide on how he wanted to detonate the
device, and determine where the best placement for it would
be. Then, it would be necessary to see if the device could be
put where he wanted it without it being discovered or moved.
Finally, he would actually have to sit down and build his
explosive device. These are some of the topics covered in the
next section.

4.1     SAFETY

     There is no such thing as a "safe" explosive device.  One
can only speak in terms of relative safety, or less unsafe.

4.2     IGNITION DEVICES

     There are many ways to ignite explosive devices.  There
is the classic "light the fuse, throw the bomb, and run"
approach, and there are sensitive mercury switches, and many
things in between.  Generally, electrical detonation systems
are safer than fuses, but there are times when fuses are more
appropriate than electrical systems; it is difficult to carry
an electrical detonation system into a stadium, for instance,
without being caught.  A device with a fuse or impact
detonating fuse would be easier to hide.

4.21     FUSE IGNITION

     The oldest form of explosive ignition, fuses are perhaps
the favorite type of simple ignition system.  By simply
placing a piece of waterproof fuse in a device, one can have
almost guaranteed ignition.  Modern waterproof fuse is
extremely reliable, burning at a rate of about 2.5 seconds to
the inch.  It is available as model rocketry fuse in most
hobby shops, and costs about $3.00 for a nine-foot length.
Fuse is a popular ignition system for pipe bombers because of
its simplicity.  All that need be done is light it with a
match or lighter.  Of course, if the Army had fuses like this,
then the grenade, which uses fuse ignition, would be very
impracticle.  If a grenade ignition system can be acquired, by
all means, it is the most effective.  But, since such things
do not just float around, the next best thing is to prepare a
fuse system which does not require the use of a match or
lighter, but still retains its simplicity. One such method is
described below:

MATERIALS
_________
strike-on-cover type matches
electrical tape or duct tape
waterproof fuse



1) To determine the burn rate of a particular type of fuse,
simply measure a 6 inch or longer piece of fuse and ignite it.
With a stopwatch, press the start button the at the instant
when the fuse lights, and stop the watch when the fuse reaches
its end.  Divide the time of burn by the length of fuse, and
you have the burn rate of the fuse, in seconds per inch.

This will be shown below:

     Suppose an eight inch piece of fuse is burned, and its
complete time of combustion is 20 seconds.

     20 seconds
     ~~~~~~~~~~  = 2.5 seconds per inch.
     8 inches

     If a delay of 10 seconds was desired with this fuse,
divide the desired time by the number of seconds per inch:

     10 seconds
     ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ = 4 inches
     2.5 seconds / inch

NOTE: THE LENGTH OF FUSE HERE MEANS LENGTH OF FUSE TO THE
POWDER.  SOME FUSE, AT LEAST AN INCH, SHOULD BE INSIDE THE
DEVICE.  ALWAYS ADD THIS EXTRA INCH, AND PUT THIS EXTRA INCH
AN INCH INTO THE DEVICE!!!

2) After deciding how long a delay is desired before the
explosive device is to go off, add about 1/2 an inch to the
premeasured amount of fuse, and cut it off.

3) Carefully remove the cardboard matches from the paper match
case.  Do not pull off individual matches; keep all the
matches attached to the cardboard    base.  Take one of the
cardboard match sections, and leave the other one    to make a
second igniter.

4) Wrap the matches around the end of the fuse, with the heads
of the matches touching the very end of the fuse.  Tape them
there securely, making sure not to put tape over the match
heads.  Make sure they are very secure by pulling on them at
the base of the assembly.  They should not be able to move.

5) Wrap the cover of the matches around the matches attached
to the fuse, making sure that the striker paper is below the
match heads and the striker faces the match heads.  Tape the
paper so that is fairly tight around the matches.  Do not tape
the cover of the striker to the fuse or to the matches.  Leave
enough of the match book to pull on for ignition.















          _____________________
          \                   /
           \                 /  ------ match book cover
            \               /
             |    M|f|M ---|------- match head
             |    A|u|A    |
             |    T|s|T    |
             |    C|e|C    |
             |tapeH|.|Htape|
             |     |f|     |
             |#####|u|#####|-------- striking paper
             |#####|s|#####|
             \     |e|     /
              \    |.|    /
               \   |f|   /
                \  |u|  /
                |ta|s|pe|
                |ta|e|pe|
                   |.|
                   |f|
                   |u|
                   |s|
                   |e|
                   |.|
                   |_|

     The match book is wrapped around the matches, and is
taped to itself. The matches are taped to the fuse.  The
striker will rub against the  matcheads when the match book is
pulled.

6) When ready to use, simply pull on the match paper.  It
should pull the striking paper across the match heads with
enough friction to light them.  In turn, the burning matcheads
will light the fuse, since it adjacent to the burning match
heads.

4.22     IMPACT IGNITION

     Impact ignition is an excellent method of ignition for
spontaneous terrorist activities.  The problem with an impact-
detonating device is that it must be kept in a very safe
container so that it will not explode while being transported
to the place where it is to be used.  This can be done by
having a removable impact initiator.

     The best and most reliable impact initiator is one that
uses factory made initiators or primers. A no. 11 cap for
black powder firearms is one such primer. They usually come in
boxes of 100, and cost about $2.50. To use such a cap,
however, one needs a nipple that it will fit on. Black powder
nipples are also available in gun stores. All that a person
has to do is ask for a package of nipples and the caps that
fit them.  Nipples have a hole that goes all the way through
them, and they have a threaded end, and an end to put the cap
on. A cutaway of a nipple is shown below:


                   ________________
                  |                |
                  _                |
                 | |                 |
          _______| |^^^^^^^^|        |
          |      ___________|            |
          |     |                        |
no. 11          |_______|                   |
percussion       _______                    | ---- threads for
screwing        |       |                   |      nipple onto
cap here        |___________
bomb      |                 |            |
          |______           |            |
                 | | ^^^^^^^         |
                 |_|                 |
                                   |
                  |________________|

     When making using this type of initiator, a hole must be
drilled into whatever container is used to make the bomb out
of. The nipple is then screwed into the hole so that it fits
tightly. Then, the cap can be carried and placed on the bomb
when it is to be thrown. The cap should be bent a small amount
before it is placed on the nipple, to make sure that it stays
in place.  The only other problem involved with an impact
detonating bomb is that it must strike a hard surface on the
nipple to set it off. By attaching fins or a small parachute
on the end of the bomb opposite the primer, the bomb, when
thrown, should strike the ground on the primer, and explode.
Of course, a bomb with mercury fulminate in each end will go
off on impact regardless of which end it strikes on, but
mercury fulminate is also likely to go off if the person
carrying the bomb is bumped hard.

4.23     ELECTRICAL IGNITION

     Electrical ignition systems for detonation are usually
the safest and most reliable form of ignition. Electrical
systems are ideal for demolition work, if one doesn't have to
worry so much about being caught. With two spools of 500 ft of
wire and a car battery, one can detonate explosives from a
"safe", comfortable distance, and be sure that there is nobody
around that could get hurt. With an electrical system, one can
control exactly what time a device will explode, within
fractions of a second. Detonation can be aborted in  less than
a second's warning, if a person suddenly walks by the
detonation sight, or if a police car chooses to roll by at the
time. The two best electrical igniters are military squibs and
model rocketry igniters. Blasting caps for construction also
work well.

Model rocketry igniters are sold in packages of six, and cost
about $1.00 per pack. All that need be done to use them is
connect it to two wires and run a current through them.
Military squibs are difficult to get, but they are a little
bit better, since they explode when a current is run through
them, whereas rocketry igniters only burst into flame.
Military squibs can be used to set off sensitive high
explosives, such as R.D.X., or potassium chlorate mixed with
petroleum jelly.
Igniters can be used to set off black powder, mercury
fulminate, or guncotton, which in turn, can set of a high
order explosive.

4.24     ELECTRO-MECHANICAL IGNITION

     Electro-mechanical ignition systems are systems that use
some type of mechanical switch to set off an explosive charge
electrically.  This type of switch is typically used in booby
traps or other devices in which the person who places the bomb
does not wish to be anywhere near the device when it explodes.
Several types of electro-mechanical detonators will be
discussed

4.241     Mercury Switches

     Mercury switches are a switch that uses the fact that
mercury metal conducts electricity, as do all metals, but
mercury metal is a liquid at room temperatures. A typical
mercury switch is a sealed glass tube with two electrodes and
a bead of mercury metal. It is sealed because of mercury's
nasty habit of giving off brain-damaging vapors. The diagram
below may help to explain a mercury switch.

                         ______________
                     A  /              \   B
      _____wire +______/___________     \
                       \   ( Hg )  |    /
                        \ _(_Hg_)__|___/
                                   |
                                   |
                            wire - |
                                   |
                                   |

     When the drop of mercury ("Hg" is mercury's atomic
symbol) touches both contacts, current flows through the
switch.  If this particular switch was in its present
position, A---B, current would be flowing, since the mercury
can touch both contacts in the horizontal position.
If, however, it was in the | position, the drop of mercury
would only touch the + contact on the A side. Current, then
couldn't flow, since mercury does not reach both contacts when
the switch is in the vertical position.  This type of switch
is ideal to place by a door. If it were placed in the path of
a swinging door in the verticle position, the motion of the
door would knock the switch down, if it was held to the ground
by a piece if tape.

This would tilt the switch into the verticle position, causing
the mercury to touch both contacts, allowing current to flow
through the mercury, and to the igniter or squib in an
explosive device. Imagine opening a door and having it slammed
in your face by an explosion.

4.242     Tripwire Switches

     A tripwire is an element of the classic booby trap.  By
placing a nearly invisible line of string or fishing line in
the probable path of a victim, and by putting some type of
trap there also, nasty things can be caused to occur. If this
mode of thought is applied to explosives, how would one use
such a tripwire to detonate a bomb.  The technique is simple.
By wrapping the tips of a standard clothespin with aluminum
foil, and placing something between them, and connecting wires
to each aluminum foil contact, an electric tripwire can be
made,  If a piece of wood attached to the tripwire was placed
between the contacts on the clothespin, the clothespin would
serve as a switch.  When the tripwire was pulled, the
clothespin would snap together, allowing current to flow
between the two pieces of aluminum foil, thereby completing a
circuit, which would have the igniter or squib in it.  Current
would flow between the contacts to the igniter or squib, heat
the igniter or squib, causing it it to explode.
                    __________________________________
                    \_foil___________________________/
 Insert strip of      ----------------------------spring
 wood with trip-      _foil__________________________
 wire between foil   /_______________________________\
 contacts.

Make sure that the aluminum foil contacts do not touch the
spring, since the spring also conducts electricity.

4.243     Radio Control Detonators

     In the movies, every terrorist or criminal uses a radio
controlled detonator to set off explosives.  With a good radio
detonator, one can be several miles away from the device, and
still control exactly when it explodes, in much the same way
as an electrical switch.  The problem with radio detonators is
that they are rather costly.  However, there could possibly be
a reason that a terrorist would wish to spend the amounts of
money involved with a RC (radio control) system and use it as
a detonator.  If such an individual wanted to devise an RC
detonator, all he would need to do is visit the local hobby
store or toy store, and buy a radio controlled toy.  Taking it
back to his/her abode, all that he/she would have to do is
detach the solenoid/motor that controls the motion of the
front wheels of a RC car, or detach the solenoid/motor of the
elevators/rudder of a RC plane, or the rudder of a RC boat,
and re-connect the squib or rocket engine igniter to the
contacts for the solenoid/motor.  The device should be tested
several times with squibs or igniters, and fully charged
batteries should be in both he controller and the receiver
(the part that used to move parts before the device became a
detonator).
4.3     DELAYS

     A delay is a device which causes time to pass from when a
device is set up to the time that it explodes.  A regular fuse
is a delay, but it would cost quite a bit to have a 24 hour
delay with a fuse.  This section deals with the different
types of delays that can be employed by a terrorist who wishes
to be sure that his bomb will go off, but wants to be out of
the country when it does.

4.31     FUSE DELAYS

     It is extremely simple to delay explosive devices that
employ fuses for ignition.  Perhaps the simplest way to do so
is with a cigarette.  An average cigarette burns for about 8
minutes. The higher the "tar" and nicotine rating, the slower
the cigarette burns. Low "tar" and nicotine cigarettes burn
quicker than the higher "tar" and nicotine cigarettes, but
they are also less likely to go out if left unattended, i.e.
not smoked. Depending on the wind or draft in a given place, a
high "tar" cigarette is better for delaying the ignition of a
fuse, but there must be enough wind or draft to give the
cigarette enough oxygen to burn. People who use cigarettes for
the purpose of delaying fuses will often test the cigarettes
that they plan to use in advance to make sure they stay lit
and to see how long it will burn. Once a cigarettes burn rate
is determined, it is a simple matter of carefully putting a
hole all the way through a cigarette with a toothpick at the
point desired, and pushing the fuse for a device in the hole
formed.

                            |=|
                            |=| ---------- filter
                            |=|
                            | |
                            | |
                            |o| ---------- hole for fuse
 cigarette ------------     | |
                            | |
                            | |
                            | |
                            | |
                            | |
                            | |
                            | |
                            | |
                            |_| ---------- light this end
     A similar type of device can be make from powdered
charcoal and a sheet of paper.  Simply roll the sheet of paper
into a thin tube, and fill it with powdered charcoal. Punch a
hole in it at the desired location, and insert a fuse. Both
ends must be glued closed, and one end of the delay must be
doused with lighter fluid before it is lit. Or, a small charge
of gunpowder mixed with powdered charcoal could conceivably
used for igniting such a delay.



A chain of charcoal briquettes can be used as a delay by
merely lining up a few bricks of charcoal so that they touch
each other, end on end, and lighting the first brick. Incense,
which can be purchased at almost any novelty or party supply
store, can also be used as a fairly reliable delay. By
wrapping the fuse about the end of an incense stick, delays of
up to 1/2 an hour are possible.  Finally, it is possible to
make a relatively slow-burning fuse in the home. By dissolving
about one teaspoon of black powder in about 1/4 a cup of
boiling water, and, while it is still hot, soaking in it a
long piece of all cotton string, a slow-burning fuse can be
made. After the soaked string dries, it must then be tied to
the fuse of an explosive device. Sometimes, the end of the
slow burning fuse that meets the normal fuse has a charge of
black powder or gunpowder at the intersection point to insure
ignition, since the slow-burning fuse does not burn at a very
high temperature. A similar type of slow fuse can be made by
taking the above mixture of boiling water and black powder and
pouring it on a long piece of toilet paper. The wet toilet
paper is then gently twisted up so that it resembles a
firecracker fuse, and is allowed to dry.

4.32     TIMER DELAYS

     Timer delays, or "time bombs" are usually employed by an
individual who wishes to threaten a place with a bomb and
demand money to reveal its location and means to disarm it.
Such a device could be placed in any populated place if it
were concealed properly.  There are several ways to build a
timer delay. By simply using a screw as one contact at the
time that detonation is desired, and using the hour hand of a
clock as the other contact, a simple timer can be made. The
minute hand of a clock should be removed, unless a delay of
less than an hour is desired.

___________________________________  to igniter      from
|                                  |                igniter
|               12                 |      :            :
|         11           1           |      :            :
|                                  |      :            :
|     10                   2       |      :            :
|                 o................|......:            :
|                                  |                   :
|   9                         3    |                   :
|                                  |                   :
|                                  |                   :
|    8                      4      |                   :
|                        o.........|......             :
|          7             5         |     :             :
|                 6                |     :.+.....-.....:
|__________________________________|     __|_____|
                           |           |
                           |  battery  |
          o - contacts     |           |
          ..... - wire     |           |
                           |___________|


     This device is set to go off in eleven hours.  When the
hour hand of the clock reaches the contact near the numeral 5,
it will complete the circuit, allowing current to flow through
the igniter or squib.

     The main disadvantage with this type of timer is that it
can only be set for a maximum time of 12 hours.  If an
electronic timer is used, such as that in an electronic clock,
then delays of up to 24 hours are possible.  By removing the
speaker from an electronic clock, and attaching the wires of a
squib or igniter to them, a timer with a delay of up to 24
hours can be made.  To utilize this type of timer, one must
have a socket that the clock can be plugged into. All that one
has to do is set the alarm time of the clock to the desired
time, connect the leads, and go away.  This could also be done
with an electronic watch, if a larger battery were used, and
the current to the speaker of the watch was stepped up via a
transformer.  This would be good, since such a timer could be
extremely small.  The timer in a VCR (Video Cassette Recorder)
would be ideal.  VCR's can usually be set for times of up to a
week.  The leads from the timer to the recording equipment
would be the ones that an igniter or squib would be connected
to.  Also, one can buy timers from electronics stores that
would be ideal.  Finally, one could employ a digital watch,
and use a relay, or electro-magnetic switch to fire the
igniter, and the current of the watch would not have to be
stepped up.

4.33     CHEMICAL DELAYS

     Chemical delays are uncommon, but they can be extremely
effective in some cases.  If a glass container is filled with
concentrated sulfuric acid, and capped with several
thicknesses of aluminum foil, or a cap that it will eat
through, then it can be used as a delay.  Sulfuric acid will
react with aluminum foil to produce aluminum sulfate and
hydrogen gas, and so the container must be open to the air on
one end so that the pressure of the hydrogen gas that is
forming does not break the container. See diagram on following
page.           _               _
               | |             | |
               | |             | |
               | |             | |
               | |_____________| |
               | |             | |
               | |  sulfuric   | |
               | |             | |
               | |  acid       | |
               | |             | |---------- aluminum foil
               | |_____________| |       (several thicknesses)
               |_________________|

     The aluminum foil is placed over the bottom of the
container and secured there with tape.  When the acid eats
through the aluminum foil, it can be used to ignite an
explosive device in several ways.


     1) Sulfuric acid is a good conductor of electricity.  If
the acid that eats through the foil is collected in a glass
container placed underneath the foil, and two wires are placed
in the glass container, a current will be able to flow through
the acid when both of the wires are immersed in the acid.

     2) Sulfuric acid reacts very violently with potassium
chlorate.  If the acid drips down into a container containing
potassium chlorate, the potassium chlorate will burst into
flame.  This flame can be used to ignite a fuse, or the
potassium chlorate can be the igniter for a thermit bomb, if
some potassium chlorate is mixed in a 50/50 ratio with the
thermit, and this mixture is used as an igniter for the rest
of the thermit.

     3) Sulfuric acid reacts with potassium permangenate in a
similar way.

4.4     EXPLOSIVE CONTAINERS

     This section will cover everything from making a simple
firecracker to a complicated scheme for detonating an
insensitive high explosive, both of which are methods that
could be utilized by perpetrators of terror.

4.41     PAPER CONTAINERS

     Paper was the first container ever used for explosives,
since it was first used by the Chinese to make fireworks.
Paper containers are usually very simple to make, and are
certainly the cheapest. There are many possible uses for paper
in containing explosives, and the two most obvious are in
firecrackers and rocket engines. Simply by rolling up a long
sheet of paper, and gluing it together, one can make a simple
rocket engine. Perhaps a more interesting and dangerous use is
in the firecracker. The firecracker shown here is one of
Mexican design. It is called a "polumna", meaning "dove". The
process of their manufacture is not unlike that of making a
paper football. If one takes a sheet of paper about 16 inches
in length by 1.5 inches wide, and fold one corner so that it
looks like this:


________________________________________________________
|                                                      |\
|                                                      | \
|                                                      |  \
|______________________________________________________|___\

       and then fold it again so that it looks like this:
_______________________________________________________
|                                                     /|
|                                                    / |
|                                                   /  |
|__________________________________________________/___|



      A pocket is formed.  This pocket can be filled with
black powder, pyrodex, flash powder, gunpowder,rocket engine
powder, or any of the quick-burning fuel-oxodizer mixtures
that occur in the form of a fine powder.  A fuse is then
inserted, and one continues the triangular folds, being
careful not to spill out any of the explosive.  When the
polumna is finished, it should be taped together very tightly,
since this will increase the strength of the container, and
produce a louder and more powerful explosion when it is lit.
The finished polumna should look like a 1/4 inch - 1/3 inch
thick triangle, like the one shown below:


             ^
            / \  ----- securely tape all corners
           /   \
          /     \
         /       \
        /         \
       /           \____________________________
      /_____________\__/__/__/__/__/__/__/__/__/ ------ fuse

4.42     METAL CONTAINERS

     The classic pipe bomb is the best known example of a
metal-contained explosive.  Idiot anarchists take white tipped
matches and cut off the match heads.  They pound one end of a
pipe closed with a hammer, pour in the white-tipped matches,
and then pound the other end closed.  This process often kills
the fool, since when he pounds the pipe closed, he could very
easily cause enough friction between the match heads to cause
them to ignite and explode the unfinished bomb.  By using pipe
caps, the process is somewhat safer, and the less stupid
anarchist would never use white tipped matches in a bomb.  He
would buy two pipe caps and threaded pipe (fig. 1).  First, he
would drill a hole in one pipe cap, and put a fuse in it so
that it will not come out, and so powder will not escape
during handling.  The fuse would be at least 3/4 an inch long
inside the bomb.  He would then screw the cap with the fuse in
it on tightly, possibly putting a drop of super glue on it to
hold it tight.  He would then pour his explosive powder in the
bomb.  To pack it tightly, he would take a large wad of tissue
paper and, after filling the pipe to the very top, pack the
powder down, by using the paper as a ramrod tip, and pushing
it with a pencil or other wide ended object, until it would
not move any further.  Finally, he would screw the other pipe
cap on, and glue it. The tissue paper would help prevent some
of the powder from being caught in the threads of the pipe or
pipe cap from being crushed and subject to friction, which
might ignite the powder, causing an explosion during
manufacture. An assembled bomb is shown in fig. 2.







_________           _______________          __________
| |     |     ^^^^^^               ^^^^^^    |        |
| |vvvvv|    |_________________________|     |vvvvvv| |
| |                                                 | |
| |                                                 | |
| |                                                 | |
| |           ___________________________           | |
| |          |                           |          | |
| | ^^^^^|    vvvvvv_______________vvvvvv    |^^^^^^| |
|________|                                   |________|

     fig 1. Threaded pipe and endcaps.
________                                ________
| _____|________________________________|_____ |
| |__________________________________________| |
| |: : : :|- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - | |
| |tissue | - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  |_|
| |  : :  |- - low order explosive - - ----------------------
| | paper | - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  |-|    fuse
| |: : : :|- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - | |
| |_______|__________________________________| |
| |__________________________________________| |
|______|                                |______|

 endcap                pipe               endcap
                                          w/ hole

     fig. 2  Assembled pipe bomb.

     This is one possible design that a mad bomber would use.
If, however, he did not have access to threaded pipe with
endcaps, he could always use a piece of copper or aluminum
pipe, since it is easily bent into a suitable position.  A
major problem with copper piping, however, is bending and
folding it without tearing it; if too much force is used when
folding and bending copper pipe, it will split along the fold.
The safest method for making a pipe bomb out of copper or
aluminum pipe is similar to the method with pipe and endcaps.
First, one flattens one end of a copper or aluminum pipe
carefully, making sure not to tear or rip the piping.  Then,
the flat end of the pipe should be folded over at least once,
if this does not rip the pipe.  A fuse hole should be drilled
in the pipe near the now closed end, and the fuse should be
inserted. Next, the bomb-builder would fill the bomb with a
low order explosive, and pack it with a large wad of tissue
paper.  He would then flatten and fold the other end of the
pipe with a pair of pliers.  If he was not too dumb, he would
do this slowly, since the process of folding and bending metal
gives off heat, which could set off the explosive.  A diagram
is presented below:
                                                _________
_______________________________________________/        |
|                                                       |
|                                                  o    |
|______________________________________________         |
                                               \________|

fig. 1  pipe with one end flattened and fuse hole drilled
(top view)
                                             ______
____________________________________________/  |  |
|                                              |  |
|                                            o |  |
|___________________________________________   |  |
                                            \__|__|

fig. 2  pipe with one end flattened and folded up (top view)

                              ____________ fuse hole
                              |
                              v
     _________________________________________________
     |                             \ |____ |
     |                              \____| |
     |                               ______|
     |                              /
     |_____________________________/__________________

     fig. 3  pipe with flattened and folded end (side view)


                                           ______ fuse
                                          /
                                         |
________   ______________________________|___   _______
|  ____|  /     |- - - - - - - - - - -| - -  \  |___  |
|  |_____/tissue| - - - - - - - - - - - -|- - \_____| |
|________ paper |- - -  low order explosive -  _______|
        \       | - - - - - - - - - - - - - - /
          \_________________________________/

     fig. 4  completed bomb, showing tissue paper packing and
explosive                 (side view)

      A CO2 cartridge from a B.B gun is another excellent
container for a low-order explosive.  It has one minor
disadvantage: it is time consuming to fill.  But this can be
rectified by widening the opening of the cartridge with a
pointed tool.  Then, all that would have to be done is to fill
the CO2 cartridge with any low-order explosive, or any of the
fast burning fuel-oxodizer mixtures, and insert a fuse.  These
devices are commonly called "crater makers".
     A CO2 cartridge also works well as a container for a
thermit incendiary device, but it must be modified. The
opening in the end must be widened, so that the ignition
mixture, such as powdered magnesium, does not explode. The
fuse will ignite the powdered magnesium, which, in turn, would
ignite the thermit.
     The previously mentioned designs for explosive devices
are fine for low-order explosives, but are unsuitable for
high-order explosives, since the latter requires a shockwave
to be detonated. A design employing a smaller low-order
explosive device inside a larger device containing a high-
order explosive would probably be used. It would look
something like:


                                         _____________ fuse
                                         |
                                         |
                                         |
_________                          |           _________
|   ____|__________________________|___________|____   |
|   | * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *|* * * * * * *  |   |
|   |  * * * * * *  high explosive | * * * * * * * |   |
|   | * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *|* * * * * * *  |   |
|   |  *  ______    _______________|_    ______  * |   |
|   | * * |  __|   /   - - - - - - | \   |__  | *  |   |
|   |  *  |  |____/   low explosive - \____|  |  * |   |
|   | * * |_______  - - - - - - - - -  _______| *  |   |
|   |  * * * * *  \  - - - - - - - -  /  * * * * * |   |
|   | * * * * * *  \_________________/  * * * * *  |   |
|   |  * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * |   |
|   | * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *  |   |
|   |  * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * |   |
|   |______________________________________________|   |
|_______|                                      |_______|

     If the large high explosive container is small, such as a
CO2 cartridge, then a segment of a hollow radio antenna can be
made into a low-order pipe bomb, which can be fitted with a
fuse, and inserted into the CO2 cartridge.

4.43     GLASS CONTAINERS

     Glass containers can be suitable for low-order
explosives, but there are problems with them.  First, a glass
container can be broken relatively easily compared to metal or
plastic containers.  Secondly, in the not-too-unlikely event
of an "accident", the person making the device would probably
be seriously injured, even if the device was small.  A bomb
made out of a sample perfume bottle-sized container exploded
in the hands of one boy, and he still has pieces of glass in
his hand.  He is also missing the final segment of his ring
finger, which was cut off by a sharp piece of flying glass...

     Nonetheless, glass containers such as perfume bottles can
be used by a demented individual, since such a device would
not be detected by metal detectors in an airport or other
public place.  All that need be done is fill the container,
and drill a hole in the plastic cap that the fuse fits tightly
in, and screw the cap-fuse assembly on.












                ________________________  fuse
                |
                |
                |
           _____|_____
           | ___|___ |
           | >  |  < |  drill hole in cap, and insert fuse;
           | >  |  < |  be sure fuse will not come out of cap
           | >  |  < |
           |    |    |
           |         |
           |         |
           |         |  screw cap on bottle
           |         |
           |         |
           V         V

            _________
           <         >
           <         >
           <         >
             /     \
            /       \
           /         \
          |           |  fill bottle with low-order explosive
          |           |
          |           |
          |           |
          |           |
          |___________|

     Large explosive devices made from glass containers are
not practicle, since glass is not an exceptionally strong
container.  Much of the explosive that is used to fill the
container is wasted if the container is much larger than a 16
oz. soda bottle.  Also, glass containers are usually
unsuitable for high explosive devices, since a glass container
would probably not withstand the explosion of the initiator;
it would shatter before the high explosive was able to
detonate.

4.44     PLASTIC CONTAINERS

     Plastic containers are perhaps the best containers for
explosives, since they can be any size or shape, and are not
fragile like glass. Plastic piping can be bought at hardware
or plumbing stores, and a device much like the ones used for
metal containers can be made. The high-order version works
well with plastic piping. If the entire device is made out of
plastic, it is not detectable by metal detectors. Plastic
containers can usually be shaped by heating the container, and
bending it at the appropriate place. They can be glued closed
with epoxy or other cement for plastics. Epoxy alone can be
used as an endcap, if a wad of tissue paper is placed in the
piping. Epoxy with a drying agent works best in this type of
device.



               ||               ||
               ||               ||
               ||\_____________/||
               ||               ||
               ||     epoxy     ||
               ||_______________||
               ||               ||
               ||    tissue     ||
               ||     paper     ||
               ||_______________||
               ||***************||
               ||***************||
               ||***************||
               ||***************||
               ||** explosive **||
               ||***************||
               ||***********-----------------------  fuse
               ||***************||
               ||~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~||
               ||               ||
               ||    tissue     ||
               ||     paper     ||
               ||_______________||
               ||               ||
               ||     epoxy     ||
               || _____________ ||
               ||/             \||
               ||               ||
               ||               ||

     One end must be made first, and be allowed to dry
completely before the device can be filled with powder and
fused.  Then, with another piece of tissue paper, pack the
powder tightly, and cover it with plenty of epoxy.  PVC pipe
works well for this type of device, but it cannot be used if
the pipe had an inside diameter greater than 3/4 of an inch.
Other plastic puttys can be used int this type of device, but
epoxy with a drying agent works best.

4.5     ADVANCED USES FOR EXPLOSIVES

     The techniques presented here are those that could be
used by a person who had some degree of knowledge of the use
of explosives.  Some of this information comes from
demolitions books, or from military handbooks.  Advanced uses
for explosives usually involved shaped charges, or utilize a
minimum amount of explosive to do a maximum amount of damage.
They almost always involve high-order explosives.

4.51     SHAPED CHARGES

     A shaped charge is an explosive device that, upon
detonation, directs the explosive force of detonation at a
small target area. This process can be used to breach the
strongest armor, since forces of literally millions of pounds
of pressure per square inch can be generated.


Shaped charges employ high-order explosives, and usually
electric ignition systems. KEEP IN MIND THAT ALL EXPLOSIVES
ARE DANGEROUS, AND SHOULD NEVER BE MADE OR USED!!

        An example of a shaped charge is shown below.

                  + wire ________           _______ - wire
                                 |         |
                                 |         |
                                 |         |
 _                      _________|_________|____________
 ^                     | ________|_________|__________ |
 |                     | |       |         |         | |
 |                     | |       \ igniter /         | |
 |                     | |        \_______/          | |
 |                     | |     priming charge        | |
 |                     | |   (mercury fulminate)     | |
 |                     | |             ^             | |
 |                     | |            / \            | |
 |                     | |           /   \           | |
 |                     | |          /     \          | |
 |                     | |         /       \         | |
 |                     | |        /         \        | |
 |                     | |       /           \       | |
                       | |      /             \      | |
 8 inches high         | |     /               \     | |
                       | |    /       high      \    | |
 |                     | |   /      explosive    \   | |
 |                     | |  /        charge       \  | |
 |                     | | /                       \ | |
 |                     | |/                         \| |
 |                     | |             ^             | |
 |                     | |            / \            | |
 |                     | |           /   \           | |
 |                     | |          /     \          | |
 |                     | |         /       \         | |
 |                     | |        /         \        | |
 |                     | |       /           \       | |
 |                     | |      /             \      | |
 |                     | |     /               \     | |
 |                     | |    /                 \    | |
 |      1/2 inch ------| |   /                   \   | |
 |      thick steel    | |  /                     \  | |
 |      pipe           | | /                       \ | |
 |                     | |/                         \| |
 |                     | |                           | |
 |                     | |                           | |
 |          hole for   | |                           | |
 |          screw      | |                           | |
 V__________  ________ | |                           | |_____
 |_________|  |__________|                           |______|
                                                          ^
The other side is        |<------- 8 inches -------->|    |
      identical.                                          |
              ____________________________________________|



     If a device such as this is screwed to a safe, for
example, it would direct most of the explosive force at a
point about 1 inch away from the opening of the pipe. The
basis for shaped charges is a cone-shaped opening in the
explosive material.  This cone should have an angle of 45
degrees.  A device such as this one could also be attached to
a metal surface with a powerful electromagnet.

4.52     TUBE EXPLOSIVES

     A variation on shaped charges, tube explosives can be
used in ways that shaped charges cannot. If a piece of 1/2
inch plastic tubing was filled with a sensitive high explosive
like R.D.X., and prepared as the plastic explosive container
in section 4.44, a different sort of shaped charge could be
produced; a charge that directs explosive force in a circular
manner. This type of explosive could be wrapped around a
column, or a doorknob, or a telephone pole. The explosion
would be directed in and out, and most likely destroy whatever
it was wrapped around. In an unbent state, a tube explosive
would look like this:




               ||      ||
               ||      ||
               ||\____/||
               || epoxy||
               ||______||
               ||      ||
               ||tissue||
               || paper||
               ||______||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               || RDX  ||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               ||******||
               || ____ ||
               || | s| ||
               || | q| ||
               || | u| ||
               || | i| ||
               || | b| ||
               || | b| ||
               || |__| ||
               ||__||__||
               ||tissue||
               || paper||
               ||__||__||
               ||  ||  ||
               || epoxy||
               ||  ||  ||
               || _||_ ||
               ||/ || \||
               ||  ||  ||
                   ||_______ + wire ______________
                   |________ - wire ______________


   When an assassin or terrorist wishes to use a tube bomb, he
must wrap it around whatever thing he wishes to destroy, and
epoxy the ends of the tube bomb together.  After it dries,
he/she can connect wires to the squib wires, and detonate the
bomb, with any method of electric detonation.

4.53     ATOMIZED PARTICLE EXPLOSIONS

     If a highly flammable substance is atomized, or, divided
into very small particles, and large amounts of it is burned
in a confined area, an explosion similar to that occurring in
the cylinder of an automobile is produced. The tiny droplets
of gasoline burn in the air, and the hot gasses expand
rapidly, pushing the cylinder up. Similarly, if a gallon of
gasoline was atomized and ignited in a building, it is very
possible that the expanding gassed would push the walls of the
building down. This phenomenon is called an atomized particle
explosion. If a person can effectively atomize a large amount
of a highly flammable substance and ignite it, he could bring
down a large building, bridge, or other structure. Atomizing a
large amount of gasoline, for example, can be extremely
difficult, unless one has the aid of a high explosive. If a
gallon jug of gasoline was placed directly over a high
explosive charge, and the charge was detonated, the gasoline
would instantly be atomized and ignited. If this occurred in a
building, for example, an atomized particle explosion would
surely occur. Only a small amount of high explosive would be
necessary to accomplish this feat, about 1/2 a pound of T.N.T.
or 1/4 a pound of R.D.X.  Also, instead of gasoline, powdered
aluminum could be used. It is necessary that a high explosive
be used to atomize a flammable material, since a low-order
explosion does not occur quickly enough to atomize or ignite
the flammable material.

4.54     LIGHTBULB BOMBS

     An automatic reaction to walking into a dark room is to
turn on the light.  This can be fatal, if a lightbulb bomb has
been placed in the overhead light socket.  A lightbulb bomb is
surprisingly easy to make.  It also comes with its own
initiator and electric ignition system.  On some lightbulbs,
the lightbulb glass can be removed from the metal base by
heating the base of a lightbulb in a gas flame, such as that
of a blowtorch or gas stove.  This must be done carefully,
since the inside of a lightbulb is a vacuum.  When the glue
gets hot enough, the glass bulb can be pulled off the metal
base.  On other bulbs, it is necessary to heat the glass
directly with a blowtorch or oxy-acetylene torch.  When the
bulb is red hot, a hole must be carefully poked in the bulb,
remembering the vacuum state inside the bulb.  In either case,
once the bulb and/or base has cooled down to room temperature
or lower, the bulb can be filled with an explosive material,
such as black powder.  If the glass was removed from the metal
base, it must be glued back on to the base with epoxy.  If a
hole was put in the bulb, a piece of duct tape is sufficient
to hold the explosive in the in the bulb.


Then, after making sure that the socket has no power by
checking with a working lightbulb, all that need be done is to
screw the lightbulb bomb into the socket.  Such a device has
been used by terrorists or assassins with much success, since
nobody can search the room for a bomb without first turning on
the light.

4.55     BOOK BOMBS

     Concealing a bomb can be extremely difficult in a day and
age where perpetrators of violence run wild.  Bags and
briefcases are often searched by authorities whenever one
enters a place where an individual might intend to set off a
bomb.  One approach to disguising a bomb is to build what is
called a book bomb; an explosive device that is entirely
contained inside of a book.  Usually, a relatively large book
is required, and the book must be of the hardback variety to
hide any protrusions of a bomb.  Dictionaries, law books,
large textbooks, and other such books work well.  When an
individual makes a bookbomb, he/she must choose a type of book
that is appropriate for the place where the book bomb will be
placed.  The actual construction of a book bomb can be done by
anyone who possesses an electric drill and a coping saw.
First, all of the pages of the book must be glued together.
By pouring an entire container of water-soluble glue into a
large bucket, and filling the bucket with boiling water, a
glue-water solution can be made that will hold all of the
book's pages together tightly.  After the glue-water solution
has cooled to a bearable temperature, and the solution has
been stirred well, the pages of the book must be immersed in
the glue-water solution, and each page must be thoroughly
soaked.  It is extremely important that the covers of the book
do not get stuck to the pages of the book while the pages are
drying. Suspending the book by both covers and clamping the
pages together in a vice works best.  When the pages dry,
after about three days to a week, a hole must be drilled into
the now rigid pages, and they should drill out much like wood.
Then, by inserting the coping saw blade through the pages and
sawing out a rectangle from the middle of the book, the
individual will be left with a shell of the book's pages.  The
pages, when drilled out, should look like this:
               ________________________
               | ____________________ |
               | |                  | |
               | |                  | |
               | |                  | |
               | |                  | |
               | |                  | |
               | |                  | |
               | |                  | |
               | |                  | |
               | |                  | |
               | |                  | |
               | |                  | |
               | |__________________| |
               |______________________|

                 (book covers omitted)

     This rectangle must be securely glued to the back cover
of the book. After building his/her bomb, which usually is of
the timer or radio controlled variety, the bomber places it
inside the book.  The bomb itself, and whatever timer or
detonator is used, should be packed in foam to prevent it from
rolling or shifting about.  Finally, after the timer is set,
or the radio control has been turned on, the front cover is
glued closed, and the bomb is taken to its destination.

4.56     PHONE BOMBS

     The phone bomb is an explosive device that has been used
in the past to kill or injure a specific individual.  The
basic idea is simple: when the person answers the phone, the
bomb explodes.  If a small but powerful high explosive device
with a squib was placed in the phone receiver, when the
current flowed through the receiver, the squib would explode,
detonating the high explosive in the person's hand.  Nasty.
All that has to be done is acquire a squib, and tape the
receiver switch down. Unscrew the mouthpiece cover, and remove
the speaker, and connect the squib's leads where it was. Place
a high explosive putty, such as C-1 (see section 3.31) in the
receiver, and screw the cover on, making sure that the squib
is surrounded by the C-1. Hang the phone up, and leave the
tape in place.  When the individual to whom the phone belongs
attempts to answer the phone, he will notice the tape, and
remove it.  This will allow current to flow through the squib.
Note that the device will not explode by merely making a phone
call; the owner of the phone must lift up the receiver, and
remove the tape.  It is highly probable that the phone will be
by his/her ear when the device explodes...

5.0     SPECIAL AMMUNITION FOR PROJECTILE WEAPONS

     Explosive and/or poisoned ammunition is an important part
of a social deviant's arsenal.  Such ammunition gives the user
a distinct advantage over individual who use normal
ammunition, since a grazing hit is good enough to kill.
Special ammunition can be made for many types of weapons, from
crossbows to shotguns.

5.1     SPECIAL AMMUNITION FOR PRIMITIVE WEAPONS

     For the purposes of this publication, we will call any
weapon primitive that does not employ burning gunpowder to
propel a projectile forward.  This means blowguns, bows and
crossbows, and wristrockets.










5.11     BOW AND CROSSBOW AMMUNITION

     Bows and crossbows both fire arrows or bolts as
ammunition.  It is extremely simple to poison an arrow or
bolt, but it is a more difficult matter to produce explosive
arrows or bolts.  If, however, one can acquire aluminum piping
that is the same diameter of an arrow or crossbow bolt, the
entire segment of piping can be converted into an explosive
device that detonates upon impact, or with a fuse.  All that
need be done is find an aluminum tube of the right length and
diameter, and plug the back end with tissue paper and epoxy.
Fill the tube with any type of low-order explosive or
sensitive high-order explosive up to about 1/2 an inch from
the top.  Cut a slot in the piece of tubing, and carefully
squeeze the top of the tube into a round point, making sure to
leave a small hole.  Place a no. 11 percussion cap over the
hole, and secure it with super glue.  Finally, wrap the end of
the device with electrical or duct tape, and make fins out of
tape.  Or, fins can be bought at a sporting goods store, and
glued to the shaft.  The finished product should look like:

               _____
               |   | ---------- no. 11 percussion cap
               ||*||
                |*|
                |*|
                |*|
                |*|
                |*|
                |*| ----------- aluminum piping
                |*|
                |e|
                |x|
                |p|
                |l|
                |o|
                |s|
                |i|
                |v|
                |e|
                |*|
                |*|
                |*|
                |*|
                |*|
                |*|
                |*|
               /|_|\
              / |t| \
              | |p| |
              | |_| |
              | |e| | -------- fins
              | |p| |
              | |y| |
              |_|_|_|
                |_|
     tp: tissue paper
     epy: epoxy

     When the arrow or bolt strikes a hard surface, the
percussion cap explodes, igniting or detonating the explosive.

5.12     SPECIAL AMMUNITION FOR BLOWGUNS

     The blowgun is an interesting weapon which has several
advantages. A blowgun can be extremely accurate, concealable,
and deliver an explosive or poisoned projectile.  The
manufacture of an explosive dart or projectile is not
difficult.  Perhaps the most simple design for such involves
the use of a pill capsule, such as the kind that are taken for
headaches or allergies. Such a capsule could easily be opened,
and the medicine removed.  Next, the capsule would be re-
filled with an impact-sensitive explosive.  An additional high
explosive charge could be placed behind the impact-sensitive
explosive, if one of the larger capsules were used.  Finally,
the explosive capsule would be reglued back together, and a
tassel or cotton would be glued to the end containing the high
explosive, to insure that the impact-detonating explosive
struck the target first.  Such a device would probably be
about 3/4 of an inch long, not including the tassel or cotton,
and look something like this:

        ____________________
       /mercury |           \-----------------------
      (fulminate|   R.D.X.   )---------------------- } tassels
       \________|___________/-----------------------

5.13     SPECIAL AMMUNITION FOR WRISTROCKETS AND SLINGSHOTS

     A modern wristrocket is a formidable weapon.  It can
throw a shooter marble about 500 ft. with reasonable accuracy.
Inside of 200 ft., it could well be lethal to a man or animal,
if it struck in a vital area.  Because of the relatively large
sized projectile that can be used in a wristrocket, the
wristrocket can be adapted to throw relatively powerful
explosive projectiles. A small segment of aluminum pipe could
be made into an impact-detonating device by filling it with an
impact-sensitive explosive material.  Also, such a pipe could
be filled with a low-order explosive, and fitted with a fuse,
which would be lit before the device was shot.  One would have
to make sure that the fuse was of sufficient length to insure
that the device did not explode before it reached its intended
target.  Finally, .22 caliber caps, such as the kind that are
used in .22 caliber blank guns, make excellent exploding
ammunition for wristrockets, but they must be used at a
relatively close range, because of their light weight.

5.2     SPECIAL AMMUNITION FOR FIREARMS

     When special ammunition is used in combination with the
power and rapidity of modern firearms, it becomes very easy to
take on a small army with a single weapon. It is possible to
buy explosive ammunition, but that can be difficult to do.
Such ammunition can also be manufactured in the home.  There
is, however, a risk involved with modifying any ammunition.


If the ammunition is modified incorrectly, in such a way that
it makes the bullet even the slightest bit wider, an explosion
in the barrel of the weapon will occur.  For this reason,
NOBODY SHOULD EVER ATTEMPT TO MANUFACTURE SUCH AMMUNITION.

5.21     SPECIAL AMMUNITION FOR HANDGUNS

     If an individual wished to produce explosive ammunition
for his/her handgun, he/she could do it, provided that the
person had an impact-sensitive explosive and a few simple
tools.  One would first purchase all lead bullets, and then
make or acquire an impact-detonating explosive.  By drilling a
hole in a lead bullet with a drill, a space could be created
for the placement of an explosive.  After filling the hole
with an explosive, it would be sealed in the bullet with a
drop of hot wax from a candle.  A diagram of a completed
exploding bullet is shown below.

              _o_ ------------ drop of wax
             /|*|\
            | |*|-|----------- impact-sensitive explosive
            | |_| |
            |_____|

     This hollow space design also works for putting poison in
bullets.

5.22     SPECIAL AMMUNITION FOR SHOTGUNS

     Because of their large bore and high power, it is
possible to create some extremely powerful special ammunition
for use in shotguns. If a shotgun shell is opened at the top,
and the shot removed, the shell can be re-closed. Then, if one
can find a very smooth, lightweight wooden dowel that is close
to the bore width of the shotgun, a person can make several
types of shotgun-launched weapons. Insert the dowel in the
barrel of the shotgun with the shell without the shot in the
firing chamber. Mark the dowel about six inches away from the
end of the barrel, and remove it from the barrel. Next, decide
what type of explosive or incendiary device is to be used.
This device can be a chemical fire bottle (sect. 3.43), a pipe
bomb (sect 4.42), or a thermit bomb (sect 3.41 and 4.42).
After the device is made, it must be securely attached to the
dowel. When this is done, place the dowel back in the shotgun.
The bomb or incendiary device should be on the end of the
dowel. Make sure that the device has a long enough fuse, light
the fuse, and fire the shotgun. If the projectile is not too
heavy, ranges of up to 300 ft are possible. A diagram of a
shotgun projectile is shown below:










                ____
               ||  |
               ||  |
               ||  | ----- bomb, securely taped to dowel
               ||  |
               ||__|
               || |
               || | ------- fuse
               || |
               ||
               ||
               ||
               || --------- dowel
               ||
               ||
               ||
               ||
               ||
               || --------- insert this end into shotgun

5.3     SPECIAL AMMUNITION FOR COMPRESSED AIR/GAS WEAPONS

     This section deals with the manufacture of special
ammunition for compressed air or compressed gas weapons, such
as pump B.B guns, CO2 B.B guns, and .22 cal pellet guns.
These weapons, although usually thought of as kids toys, can
be made into rather dangerous weapons.

5.31     SPECIAL AMMUNITION FOR B.B GUNS

     A B.B gun, for this manuscript, will be considered any
type of rifle or pistol that uses compressed air or CO2 gas to
fire a projectile with a caliber of .177, either B.B, or lead
pellet. Such guns can have almost as high a muzzle velocity as
a bullet-firing rifle. Because of the speed at which a .177
caliber projectile flies, an impact detonating projectile can
easily be made that has a caliber of .177. Most ammunition for
guns of greater than .22 caliber use primers to ignite the
powder in the bullet. These primers can be bought at gun
stores, since many people like to reload their own bullets.
Such primers detonate when struck by the firing pin of a gun.
They will also detonate if they are thrown at a hard surface
at a great speed. Usually, they will also fit in the barrel of
a .177 caliber gun. If they are inserted flat end first, they
will detonate when the gun is fired at a hard surface. If such
a primer is attached to a piece of thin metal tubing, such as
that used in an antenna, the tube can be filled with an
explosive, be sealed, and fired from a B.B gun. A diagram of
such a projectile appears below:









     _____ primers _______
    |                    |
    |                    |
    |                    |
    V                    V
 ______                _____
| ________________________ |-------------------
| ****** explosive ******* |------------------- } tassel or
| ________________________ |-------------------   cotton
|_____                _____|-------------------
            ^
            |
            |
            |_______ antenna tubing

     The front primer is attached to the tubing with a drop of
super glue. The tubing is then filled with an explosive, and
the rear primer is glued on. Finally, a tassel, or a small
piece of cotton is glued to the rear primer, to insure that
the projectile strikes on the front primer.  The entire
projectile should be about 3/4 of an inch long.

5.32     SPECIAL AMMUNITION FOR .22 CALIBER PELLET GUNS

     A .22 caliber pellet gun usually is equivalent to a .22
cal rifle, at close ranges.  Because of this, relatively large
explosive projectiles can be adapted for use with .22 caliber
air rifles.  A design similar to that used in section 5.12 is
suitable, since some capsules are about .22 caliber or
smaller. Or, a design similar to that in section 5.31 could be
used, only one would have to purchase black powder percussion
caps, instead of ammunition primers, since there are
percussion caps that are about .22 caliber.  A #11 cap is too
small, but anything larger will do nicely.

6.0     ROCKETS AND CANNONS

     Rockets and cannon are generally thought of as heavy
artillery. Perpetrators of violence do not usually employ such
devices, because they are difficult or impossible to acquire.
They are not, however, impossible to make. Any individual who
can make or buy black powder or pyrodex can make such things.
A terrorist with a cannon or large rocket is, indeed,
something to fear.

6.1     ROCKETS

     Rockets were first developed by the Chinese several
hundred years before Christ.  They were used for
entertainment, in the form of fireworks. They were not usually
used for military purposes because they were inaccurate,
expensive, and unpredictable.  In modern times, however,
rockets are used constantly by the military, since they are
cheap, reliable, and have no recoil. Perpetrators of violence,
fortunately, cannot obtain military rockets, but they can make
or buy rocket engines.


Model rocketry is a popular hobby of the space age, and to
launch a rocket, an engine is required.  Estes, a subsidiary
of Damon, is the leading manufacturer of model rockets and
rocket engines.  Their most powerful engine, the "D" engine,
can develop almost 12 lbs. of thrust; enough to send a
relatively large explosive charge a significant distance.
Other companies, such as Centuri, produce even larger rocket
engines, which develop up to 30 lbs. of thrust.  These model
rocket engines are quite reliable, and are designed to be
fired electrically.  Most model rocket engines have three
basic sections.  The diagram below will help explain them.

  ___________________________________________
 |___________________________________________| -- cardboard
  \ clay| - - - - - -| * * * | . . . .|c|           casing
   \____| - - - - -  | * * * |  . . . |l|
    ____  - thrust - | smoke | eject  |a|
   /clay|- - - - - - | * * * | . . . .|y|
  /_____|____________|_______|________|_|____
 |___________________________________________| -- cardboard
                                                    casing

     The clay nozzle is where the igniter is inserted.  When
the area labeled "thrust" is ignited, the "thrust" material,
usually a large single grain of a propellant such as black
powder or pyrodex, burns, forcing large volumes of hot,
rapidly expanding gasses out the narrow nozzle, pushing the
rocket forward. After the material has been consumed, the
smoke section of the engine is ignited.  It is usually a slow-
burning material, similar to black powder that has had various
compounds added to it to produce visible smoke, usually black,
white, or yellow in color.  This section exists so that the
rocket will be seen when it reaches its maximum altitude, or
apogee.  When it is burned up, it ignites the ejection charge,
labeled "eject".  The ejection charge is finely powdered black
powder.  It burns very rapidly, exploding, in effect.  The
explosion of the ejection charge pushes out the parachute of
the model rocket. It could also be used to ignite the fuse of
a bomb...

     Rocket engines have their own peculiar labeling system.
Typical engine labels are: 1/4A-2T, 1/2A-3T, A8-3, B6-4, C6-7,
and D12-5.  The letter is an indicator of the power of an
engine.  "B" engines are twice as powerful as "A" engines, and
"C" engines are twice as powerful as "B" engines, and so on.
The number following the letter is the approximate thrust of
the engine, in pounds. the final number and letter is the time
delay, from the time that the thrust period of engine burn
ends until the ejection charge fires; "3T" indicates a 3
second delay.

NOTE: an extremely effective rocket propellant can be made by
mixing aluminum       dust with ammonium perchlorate and a
very small amount of iron oxide.       The mixture is bound
together by an epoxy.


6.11     BASIC ROCKET BOMB

     A rocket bomb is simply what the name implies: a bomb
that is delivered to its target by means of a rocket.  Most
people who would make such a device would use a model rocket
engine to power the device.  By cutting fins from balsa wood
and gluing them to a large rocket engine, such as the Estes
"C" engine, a basic rocket could be constructed.  Then, by
attaching a "crater maker", or CO2 cartridge bomb to the
rocket, a bomb would be added.  To insure that the fuse of the
"crater maker" (see sect. 4.42) ignited, the clay over the
ejection charge of the engine should be scraped off with a
plastic tool.  The fuse of the bomb should be touching the
ejection charge, as shown below.

   ____________ rocket engine
   |                         _________ crater maker
   |                         |
   |                         |
   V                         |
_____________________________V_
|______________________________|  ______________________
\   | - - - - - -|***|::::|      /# # # # # # # # # # # \
 \__| - - - - - -|***|::::|  ___/  # # # # # # # # # # # \
  __  - - - - - -|***|::::|---fuse--- # #  explosive  # # )
 /  | - - - - - -|***|::::|  ___   # # # # # # # # # # # /
/___|____________|___|____|____ \_______________________/
|______________________________|


     thrust> - - - - - -
     smoke>  ***
     ejection charge> ::::

     Duct tape is the best way to attach the crater maker to
the rocket engine.  Note in the diagram the absence of the
clay over the ejection charge Many different types of
explosive payloads can be attached to the rocket, such as a
high explosive, an incendiary device, or a chemical fire
bottle.

   Either four or three fins must be glued to the rocket
engine to insure that the rocket flies straight. The fins
should look like the following diagram:















          |\
          | \
          |  \
          |   \  <--------- glue this to rocket engine
          |    \
          |     \
          |      \
          |       |
          |       |
          |       |
  leading edge    |
   ------->       |
          |       |
          |       |  trailing edge
          |       |    <--------
          |       |
          |       |
          |       |
          |       |
           \_____/

     The leading edge and trailing edge should be sanded with
sandpaper so that they are rounded.  This will help make the
rocket fly straight.  A two inch long section of a plastic
straw can be attached to the rocket to launch it from.  A
clothes hanger can be cut and made into a launch rod.  The
segment of a plastic straw should be glued to the rocket
engine adjacent to one of the fins of the rocket.  A front
view of a completed rocket bomb is shown below.

                         |
      fin                | <------ fin
       |                 |           |
       |                 |           |
       |               __|__         |
       V              /     \        V
      ---------------|       |---------------
                      \_____/
                         |o <----------- segment of plastic
                         |               straw
                         |
                         | <------ fin
                         |
                         |

     By cutting a coat hanger at the indicated arrows, and
bending it, a launch rod can be made.  After a fuse is
inserted in the engine, the rocket is simply slid down the
launch rod, which is put through the segment of plastic straw.
The rocket should slide easily along a coathanger, such as the
one illustated on the following page:






                        ____
                       /    \
                      |      |
          cut here _____     |
                       |     |
                       |     |
                       |    / \
                       V   /   \
         _________________/     \________________
        /                                        \
       /                                          \
      /____________________________________________\
                                   ^
                                   |
                                   |
                    and here ______|

     Bend wire to this shape:

                         _______ insert into straw
                         |
                         |
                         |
                         V
          ____________________________________________
          \
           \
            \
             \
              \  <--------- bend here to adjust flight angle
               |
               |
               |
               |
               |
               | <---------- put this end in ground
               |

6.12     LONG RANGE ROCKET BOMB

     Long range rockets can be made by using multi-stage
rockets.  Model rocket engines with an "0" for a time delay
are designed for use in multi-stage rockets.  An engine such
as the D12-0 is an excellent example of such an engine.
Immediately after the thrust period is over, the ejection
charge explodes.  If another engine is placed directly against
the back of an "0" engine, the explosion of the ejection
charge will send hot gasses and burning particles into the
nozzle of the engine above it, and ignite the thrust section.
This will push the used "0" engine off of the rocket, causing
an overall loss of weight.  The main advantage of a multi-
stage rocket is that it loses weight as travels, and it gains
velocity.  A multi-stage rocket must be designed somewhat
differently than a single stage rocket, since, in order for a
rocket to fly straight, its center of gravity must be ahead of
its center of drag.  This is accomplished by adding weight to
the front of the rocket, or by moving the center of drag back
by putting fins on the rocket that are well behind the rocket.
A diagram of a multi-stage rocket is shown here:
                    ___
                   /   \
                   |   |
                   | C |
                   | M | ------ CM: Crater Maker
                   |   |
                   |   |
                   |___|
                   |   |
                   |   |
                   |   |
                   | C | ------ C6-5 rocket engine
                  /| 6 |\
                 / | | | \
                /  | 5 |  \
               /   |___|   \ ---- fin
              /   /|   |\   \
             /   / |   | \   \
            /   /  |   |  \   \
           /   /   | C |   \   \
          |   /    | 6 |    \   |
          |  /     | | |     \  |
          | /      | 0 |      \ |
          |/       |___|       \|
          |       /     \       |
          \______/   ^   \______/ ------- fin
                     |
                     |
                     |
                     |
                     C6-0 rocket engine

     The fuse is put in the bottom engine.

     Two, three, or even four stages can be added to a rocket
bomb to give it a longer range.  It is important, however,
that for each additional stage, the fin area gets larger.


6.13     MULTIPLE WARHEAD ROCKET BOMBS

     "M.R.V." is an acronym for Multiple Reentry Vehicle.  The
concept is simple: put more than one explosive warhead on a
single missile.  This can be done without too much difficulty
by anyone who knows how to make crater-makers and can buy
rocket engines.  By attaching crater makers with long fuses to
a rocket, it is possible that a single rocket could deliver
several explosive devices to a target. Such a rocket might
look like the diagram on the following page:









              ___
             /   \
             |   |
             | C |
             | M |
             |___|
          ___|   |___
          |  |   |  |
          |  | T |  |
         / \ | U | / \
        /   \| B |/   \
        |   || E ||   |
        | C ||   || C |
        | M ||   || M |
        |   ||___||   |
        \___/| E |\___/
             | N |
            /| G |\
           / | I | \
          /  | N |  \
         /   | E |   \
        /    |___|    \
       / fin/  |  \ fin\
      |    /   |   \    |
       \__/    |    \__/

               ^
               |____ fin

     The crater makers are attached to the tube of rolled
paper with tape. the paper tube is made by rolling and gluing
a 4 inch by 8 inch piece of paper. The tube is glued to the
engine, and is filled with gunpowder or black powder. Small
holes are punched in it, and the fuses of the crater makers
are inserted in these holes.  A crater maker is glued to the
open end of the tube, so that its fuse is inside the tube.  A
fuse is inserted in the engine, or in the bottom engine if the
rocket bomb is multi stage, and the rocket is launched from
the coathanger launcher, if a segment of a plastic straw has
been attached to it.

6.2     CANNON

     The cannon is a piece of artillery that has been in use
since the 11th century.  It is not unlike a musket, in that it
is filled with powder, loaded, and fired.  Cannons of this
sort must also be cleaned after each shot, otherwise, the
projectile may jam in the barrel when it is fired, causing the
barrel to explode.  A sociopath could build a cannon without
too much trouble, if he/she had a little bit of money, and
some patience.







6.21     BASIC PIPE CANNON

     A simple cannon can be made from a thick pipe by almost
anyone.  The only difficult part is finding a pipe that is
extremely smooth on its interior. This is absolutely
necessary; otherwise, the projectile may jam.  Copper or
aluminum piping is usually smooth enough, but it must also be
extremely thick to withstand the pressure developed by the
expanding hot gasses in a cannon.  If one uses a projectile
such as a CO2 cartridge, since such a projectile can be made
to explode, a pipe that is about 1.5 - 2 feet long is ideal.
Such a pipe MUST have walls that are at least 1/3 to 1/2 an
inch thick, and be very smooth on the interior.  If possible,
screw an endplug into the pipe.  Otherwise, the pipe must be
crimped and folded closed, without cracking or tearing the
pipe. A small hole is drilled in the back of the pipe near the
crimp or endplug. Then, all that need be done is fill the pipe
with about two teaspoons of grade blackpowder or pyrodex,
insert a fuse, pack it lightly by ramming a wad of tissue
paper down the barrel, and drop in a CO2 cartridge.  Brace the
cannon securely against a strong structure, light the fuse,
and run.  If the person is lucky, he will not have overcharged
the cannon, and he will not be hit by pieces of exploding
barrel.  Such a cannon would look like this:

           __________________ fuse hole
          |
          |
          V

____________________________________________________________
|  |________________________________________________________|
| endplug|powder|t.p.| CO2 cartridge
|  ______|______|____|______________________________________
|_|_________________________________________________________|

     An exploding projectile can be made for this type of
cannon with a CO2 cartridge. It is relatively simple to do.
Just make a crater maker, and construct it such that the fuse
projects about an inch from the end of the cartridge. Then,
wrap the fuse with duct tape, covering it entirely, except for
a small amount at the end. Put this in the pipe cannon without
using a tissue paper packing wad. When the cannon is fired, it
will ignite the end of the fuse, and shoot the CO2 cartridge.
The explosive-filled cartridge will explode in about three
seconds, if all goes well. Such a projectile would look like
this:











           ___
          /   \
          |   |
          | C |
          | M |
          |   |
          |   |
          |\ /|
          | | | ---- tape
          |_|_|
            |
            | ------ fuse

6.22     ROCKET FIRING CANNON

     A rocket firing cannon can be made exactly like a normal
cannon; the only difference is the ammunition. A rocket fired
from a cannon will fly further than a rocket alone, since the
action of shooting it overcomes the initial inertia. A rocket
that is launched when it is moving will go further than one
that is launched when it is stationary. Such a rocket would
resemble a normal rocket bomb, except it would have no fins.
It would look like this:

           ___
          /   \
          |   |
          | C |
          | M |
          |   |
          |   |
          |___|
          | E |
          | N |
          | G |
          | I |
          | N |
          | E |
          |___|

     The fuse on such a device would, obviously, be short, but
it would not be ignited until the rocket's ejection charge
exploded.  Thus, the delay before the ejection charge, in
effect, becomes the delay before the bomb explodes. Note that
no fuse need be put in the rocket; the burning powder in the
cannon will ignite it, and simultaneously push the rocket out
of the cannon at a high velocity.











7.0     PYROTECHNICA ERRATA

     There are many other types of pyrotechnics that a
perpetrator of violence might employ. Smoke bombs can be
purchased in magic stores, and large military smoke bombs can
be bought through adds in gun and military magazines. Also,
fireworks can also be used as weapons of terror. A large
aerial display rocket would cause many injuries if it were to
be fired so that it landed on the ground near a crowd of
people. Even the "harmless" pull-string fireworks, which
consists of a sort of firecracker that explodes when the
strings running through it are pulled, could be placed inside
a large charge of a sensitive high explosive. Tear gas is
another material that might well be useful to the sociopath,
and such a material could be instantly disseminated over a
large crowd by means of a rocket-bomb, with nasty effects.

7.1     SMOKE BOMBS

     One type of pyrotechnic device that might be employed by
a terrorist in many way would be a smoke bomb.  Such a device
could conceal the getaway route, or cause a diversion, or
simply provide cover.  Such a device, were it to produce
enough smoke that smelled bad enough, could force the
evacuation of a building, for example.  Smoke bombs are not
difficult to make.  Although the military smoke bombs employ
powdered white phosphorus or titanium compounds, such
materials are usually unavailable to even the most well-
equipped terrorist. Instead, he/she would have to make the
smoke bomb for themselves.

     Most homemade smoke bombs usually employ some type of
base powder, such as black powder or pyrodex, to support
combustion.  The base material will burn well, and provide
heat to cause the other materials in the device to burn, but
not completely or cleanly.  Table sugar, mixed with sulfur and
a base material, produces large amounts of smoke.  Sawdust,
especially if it has a small amount of oil in it, and a base
powder works well also.  Other excellent smoke ingredients are
small pieces of rubber, finely ground plastics, and many
chemical mixtures.  The material in road flares can be mixed
with sugar and sulfur and a base powder produces much smoke.
Most of the fuel-oxodizer mixtures, if the ratio is not
correct, produce much smoke when added to a base powder.  The
list of possibilities goes on and on.  The trick to a
successful smoke bomb also lies in the container used.  A
plastic cylinder works well, and contributes to the smoke
produced.  The hole in the smoke bomb where the fuse enters
must be large enough to allow the material to burn without
causing an explosion.  This is another plus for plastic
containers, since they will melt and burn when the smoke
material ignites, producing an opening large enough to prevent
an explosion.





7.2     COLORED FLAMES

     Colored flames can often be used as a signaling device
for terrorists. by putting a ball of colored flame material in
a rocket; the rocket, when the ejection charge fires, will
send out a burning colored ball.  The materials that produce
the different colors of flames appear below.

COLOR            MATERIAL                     USED IN
~~~~~            ~~~~~~~~                     ~~~~~~~
______________________________________________________________
red              strontium                   road flares,
                 salts                       red sparklers
                 (strontium nitrate)
______________________________________________________________
green            barium salts                green sparklers
                 (barium nitrate)
______________________________________________________________
yellow           sodium salts                gold sparklers
                 (sodium nitrate)
______________________________________________________________
blue             powdered copper             blue sparklers,
                                             old pennies
______________________________________________________________
white            powdered magnesium          firestarters,
                 or aluminum                 aluminum foil
______________________________________________________________
purple           potassium permanganate      purple fountains,
                                             treating sewage
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
7.3     TEAR GAS

     A terrorist who could make tear gas or some similar
compound could use it with ease against a large number of
people.  Tear gas is fairly complicated to make, however, and
this prevents such individuals from being able to utilize its
great potential for harm.  One method for its preparation is
shown below.

     EQUIPMENT
     _________

     1.  ring stands (2)
     2.  alcohol burner
     3.  erlenmeyer flask, 300 ml
     4.  clamps (2)
     5.  rubber stopper
     6.  glass tubing
     7.  clamp holder
     8.  condenser
     9.  rubber tubing
     10.  collecting flask
     11.  air trap
     12.  beaker, 300 ml



     MATERIALS

     10 gms  glycerine
     2 gms sodium bisulfate
     distilled water

1.)  In an open area, wearing a gas mask, mix 10 gms of
glycerine with 2 gms of sodium bisulfate in the 300 ml
erlenmeyer flask.

2.)  Light the alcohol burner, and gently heat the flask.

3.)  The mixture will begin to bubble and froth; these bubbles
are tear gas.

4.)  When the mixture being heated ceases to froth and
generate gas, or a brown residue becomes visible in the tube,
the reaction is complete.  Remove the heat source, and dispose
of the heated mixture, as it is corrosive.

5.)  The material that condenses in the condenser and drips
into the collecting flask is tear gas.  It must be capped
tightly, and stored in a safe place.

7.4     FIREWORKS

     While fireworks cannot really be used as an effective
means of terror, they do have some value as distractions or
incendiaries.  There are several basic types of fireworks that
can be made in the home, whether for fun, profit, or nasty
uses.

7.41     FIRECRACKERS

     A simple firecracker can be made from cardboard tubing
and epoxy. The instructions are below:

1) Cut a small piece of cardboard tubing from the tube you are
using. "Small" means anything less than 4 times the diameter
of the tube.

2) Set the section of tubing down on a piece of wax paper, and
fill it with epoxy and the drying agent to a height of 3/4 the
diameter of the tubing.  Allow the epoxy to dry to maximum
hardness, as specified on the package.

3) When it is dry, put a small hole in the middle of the tube,
and insert a desired length of fuse.

4) Fill the tube with any type of flame-sensitive explosive.
Flash powder, pyrodex, black powder, potassium picrate, lead
azide, nitrocellulose, or any of the fast burning
fuel-oxodizer mixtures will do nicely.  Fill the tube almost
to the top.

5) Pack the explosive tightly in the tube with a wad of tissue
paper and a pencil or other suitable ramrod.  Be sure to leave
enough space for more epoxy.

6) Fill the remainder of the tube with the epoxy and hardener,
and allow it to dry.

7) For those who wish to make spectacular firecrackers, always
use flash powder, mixed with a small amount of other material
for colors.  By crushing the material on a sparkler, and
adding it to the flash powder, the explosion will be the same
color as the sparkler.   By adding small chunks of sparkler
material, the device will throw out colored burning sparks, of
the same color as the sparkler.  By adding powdered iron,
orange sparks will be produced.  White sparks can be produced
from magnesium shavings, or from small, LIGHTLY crumpled balls
of aluminum foil.

Example:  Suppose I wish to make a firecracker that will
explode with a red flash, and throw out white sparks.  First,
I would take a road flare, and finely powder the material
inside it. Or, I could take a red sparkler, and finely
powder it.  Then, I would mix a small amount of this
material with the flash powder.  (NOTE: FLASH POWDER
MAY REACT WITH SOME MATERIALS THAT IT IS MIXED WITH, AND
EXPLODE SPONTANEOUSLY!)  I would mix it in a ratio of
9 parts flash powder to 1 part of flare or sparkler
material, and add about 15 small balls of aluminum foil
I would store the material in a plastic bag overnight
outside of the house, to make sure that the stuff doesn't
react.  Then, in the morning, I would test a small amount
of it, and if it was satisfactory, I would put it in the
firecracker.

8) If this type of firecracker is mounted on a rocket engine,
professional to semi-professional displays can be produced.

7.42     SKYROCKETS

     An impressive home made skyrocket can easily be made in
the home from model rocket engines.  Estes engines are
recommended.

     1) Buy an Estes Model Rocket Engine of the desired size,
remembering that the power doubles with each letter.  (See
sect. 6.1 for details)

     2) Either buy a section of body tube for model rockets
that exactly fits the engine, or make a tube from several
thicknesses of paper and glue.

     3) Scrape out the clay backing on the back of the engine,
so that the powder is exposed.  Glue the tube to the engine,
so that the tube covers at least half the engine.  Pour a
small charge of flash powder in the tube, about 1/2 an inch.

     4) By adding materials as detailed in the section on
firecrackers,  various types of effects can be produced.




     5) By putting Jumping Jacks or bottle rockets without the
stick in the tube, spectacular displays with moving fireballs
or M.R.V.'s can be produced.

     6) Finally, by mounting many home made firecrackers on
the tube with the fuses in the tube, multiple colored bursts
can be made.

7.43     ROMAN CANDLES

     Roman candles are impressive to watch.  They are
relatively difficult to make, compared to the other types of
home-made fireworks, but they are well worth the trouble.

     1) Buy a 1/2 inch thick model rocket body tube, and
reinforce it with several layers of paper and/or masking tape.
This must be done to prevent the tube from exploding.  Cut the
tube into about 10 inch lengths.

     2) Put the tube on a sheet of wax paper, and seal one end
with epoxy and the drying agent.  About 1/2 of an inch is
sufficient.

     3) Put a hole in the tube just above the bottom layer of
epoxy, and insert a desired length of water proof fuse.  Make
sure that the fuse fits tightly.

     4) Pour about 1 inch of pyrodex or gunpowder down the
open end of the tube.

     5) Make a ball by powdering about two 6 inch sparklers of
the desired color.  Mix this powder with a small amount of
flash powder and a small amount of pyrodex, to have a final
ratio (by volume) of 60% sparkler material / 20% flash powder
/ 20% pyrodex.  After mixing the powders well, add water, one
drop at a time, and mixing continuously, until a damp paste is
formed.  This paste should be moldable by hand, and should
retain its shape when left alone. Make a ball out of the paste
that just fits into the tube.  Allow  the ball to dry.

6) When it is dry, drop the ball down the tube.  It should
slide down fairly easily.  Put a small wad of tissue paper in
the tube, and pack it gently against the ball with a pencil.

     7) When ready to use, put the candle in a hole in the
ground, pointed in a safe direction, light the fuse, and run.
If the device works, a colored fireball should shoot out of
the tube to a height of about 30 feet.  This height can be
increased by adding a slightly larger powder charge in step 4,
or by using a slightly longer tube.

     8) If the ball does not ignite, add slightly more pyrodex
in step 5.

     9) The balls made for roman candles also function very
well in rockets, producing an effect of falling colored
fireballs.



8.0     LISTS OF SUPPLIERS AND MORE INFORMATION

     Most, if not all, of the information in this publication
can be obtained  through a public or university library.
There are also many publications that are put out by people
who want to make money by telling other people how to make
explosives at home.  Adds for such appear frequently in
paramilitary magazines and newspapers.  This list is presented
to show the large number of places that information and
materials can be purchased from.   It also includes fireworks
companies and the like.

COMPANY NAME AND ADDRESS               WHAT COMPANY SELLS
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~               ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

FULL AUTO CO. INC.                     EXPLOSIVE RECIPES,
P.O. BOX 1881                          PAPER TUBING
MURFREESBORO, TN
37133
______________________________________________________________

UNLIMITED                              CHEMICALS AND FUSE
BOX 1378-SN
HERMISTON, OREGON
97838
______________________________________________________________
AMERICAN FIREWORKS NEWS                FIREWORKS NEWS MAGAZINE
WITH  SR BOX 30                        SOURCES AND TECHNIQUES
DINGMAN'S FERRY, PENNSYLVANIA
18328

______________________________________________________________
BARNETT INTERNATIONAL INC.               BOWS, CROSSBOWS,
ARCHERY MATERIALS, 125 RUNNELS STREET    AIR RIFLES
P.O. BOX 226
PORT HURON, MICHIGAN
48060
______________________________________________________________
CROSSMAN AIR GUNS                      AIR GUNS
P.O. BOX 22927
ROCHESTER, NEW YORK
14692
______________________________________________________________
EXECUTIVE PROTECTION PRODUCTS INC.     TEAR GAS GRENADES,
316 CALIFORNIA AVE.                    PROTECTION DEVICES
RENO, NEVADA
89509
______________________________________________________________
BADGER FIREWORKS CO. INC.              CLASS "B" AND "C"
FIREWORKS  BOX 1451
JANESVILLE, WISCONSIN
53547
______________________________________________________________
NEW ENGLAND FIREWORKS CO. INC.         CLASS "C" FIREWORKS
P.O. BOX 3504
STAMFORD, CONNECTICUTT
06095


______________________________________________________________
RAINBOW TRAIL                          CLASS "C" FIREWORKS
BOX 581
EDGEMONT, PENNSYLVANIA
19028
______________________________________________________________
STONINGTON FIREWORKS INC.              CLASS "C" AND "B" 4010
NEW WILSEY BAY U.25 ROAD              FIREWORKS
RAPID RIVER, MICHIGAN
49878
______________________________________________________________
WINDY CITY FIREWORKS INC.              CLASS "C" AND "B"
FIREWORKS  P.O. BOX 11                   (GOOD PRICES!)
ROCHESTER, INDIANNA
46975
______________________________________________________________
BOOKS
~~~~~

THE ANARCHIST'S COOKBOOK
THE IMPROVISED MUNITIONS MANUAL
MILITARY EXPLOSIVES
FIRES AND EXPLOSIONS

9.0     CHECKLIST FOR RAIDS ON LABS

     In the end, the serious terrorist would probably realize
that if he/she wishes to make a truly useful explosive, he or
she will have to steal the chemicals to make the explosive
from a lab.  A list of such chemicals in order of priority
would probably resemble the following:

LIQUIDS                    SOLIDS
_______                    ______

Nitric Acid        ____     Potassium Perchlorate   ____
Sulfuric Acid      ____     Potassium Chlorate      ____
95% Ethanol        ____     Picric Acid (usually a powder)
Toluene            ____     Ammonium Nitrate      ____
Perchloric Acid    ____     Powdered Magnesium    ____
Hydrochloric Acid  ____     Powdered Aluminum
                   ____     Potassium Permanganate
                   ____     Sulfur
                   ____     Mercury
                   ____     Potassium Nitrate
                   ____     Potassium Hydroxide
                   ____     Phosphorus
                   ____     Sodium Azide
                   ____     Lead Acetate
                   ____     Barium Nitrate






     KNO     +     "
                       3                 3

3.  ammonium perchlorate from perchloric acid and ammonium
hydroxide
NH OH       +     HClO     ---->     NH ClO     +     "
 3                   4                3   4

4.  ammonium nitrate from nitric acid and ammonium hydroxide
     NH OH       +     HNO     ---->     NH NO     +     "
       3                                   3  3

5.  powdered aluminum from acids, aluminum foil, and magnesium

A.     aluminum foil    +    6HCl    ---->   2AlCl   +   3H
                                                 3         2

B.     2AlCl  (aq)   +    3Mg    ---->  3MgCl (aq)   +  2Al
           3                                 2

     The Al will be a very fine silvery powder at the bottom
of the container which must be filtered and dried.  This same
method works with nitric and sulfuric acids, but these acids
are too valuable in the production of high explosives to use
for such a purpose, unless they are available in great excess.

      Well these three books were made by L.T.D president of
L.T.D Industries so that anyone could easily get a hold of it.
Feel free to use this book in whatever way you feel
neccesarry, but remember explosives are and always will be
extremly dangerous. I might add that at our L.T.D
Pyro-Technologies factorys each scientist works in his/her own
explosive-proof cell. So if one of them FUCK UP the whole
factory won't go to hell, an there will be only one death. You
see the experts make mistakes too.
Finaly:
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!USE OF THIS BOOK OCCURS ON YOUR OWN RESPONSEBILITY!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!



(c) 1998 by James Ershov